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A Driving Simulation Platform using Distributed Vehicle Simulators and HLA
Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
Hiq Accelerated Concept Evaluation AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
Pitch Technologies.
Show others and affiliations
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the DSC 2015 Europe: Driving Simulation Conference & Exhibition / [ed] Heinrich Bülthoff, Andras Kemeny and Paolo Pretto, 2015, p. 123-130Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Modern vehicles are complex systems consisting of an increasing large multitude of components that operate together. While functional verification on individual components is important, it is also important to test components within a driving environment, both from a functional perspective and from a driver perspective. One proven way for testing is vehicle simulators and in this work the main goals have been to increase flexibility and scalability by introducing a distributed driving simulator platform.

As an example, consider a workflow where a developer can go from a desktop simulation to an intermediate driving simulator to a high fidelity driving simulator with Hardware-In-the-Loop systems close to a finished vehicle in an easy way. To accomplish this, a distributed simulation architecture was designed and implemented that divides a driving simulator environment into four major entities with well-defined interfaces, using HLA as the method of communication. This platform was evaluated on two aspects, flexibility/scalability and timing performance. Results show that increased flexibility and scalability was achieved when using a distributed simulation platform. It is also shown that latency was only slightly increased when using HLA.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. p. 123-130
Keywords [en]
Test, Vehicle, Engine, Performance, Simulator (driving), Computer
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 96 Road: Vehicle operating and management
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136153ISBN: 9783981309935 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-136153DiVA, id: diva2:1086027
Conference
Driving Simulation Conference 2015. 16-18 september 2015, Tübingen, Germany
Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2017-03-31 Last updated: 2019-04-28Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Extensions for Distributed Moving Base Driving Simulators
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extensions for Distributed Moving Base Driving Simulators
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Modern vehicles are complex systems. Different design stages for such a complex system include evaluation using models and submodels, hardware-in-the-loop systems and complete vehicles. Once a vehicle is delivered to the market evaluation continues by the public. One kind of tool that can be used during many stages of a vehicle lifecycle is driving simulators.

The use of driving simulators with a human driver is commonly focused on driver behavior. In a high fidelity moving base driving simulator it is possible to provide realistic and repetitive driving situations using distinctive features such as: physical modelling of driven vehicle, a moving base, a physical cabin interface and an audio and visual representation of the driving environment. A desired but difficult goal to achieve using a moving base driving simulator is to have behavioral validity. In other words, \A driver in a moving base driving simulator should have the same driving behavior as he or she would have during the same driving task in a real vehicle.".

In this thesis the focus is on high fidelity moving base driving simulators. The main target is to improve the behavior validity or to maintain behavior validity while adding complexity to the simulator. One main assumption in this thesis is that systems closer to the final product provide better accuracy and are perceived better if properly integrated. Thus, the approach in this thesis is to try to ease incorporation of such systems using combinations of the methods hardware-in-the-loop and distributed simulation. Hardware-in-the-loop is a method where hardware is interfaced into a software controlled environment/simulation. Distributed simulation is a method where parts of a simulation at physically different locations are connected together. For some simulator laboratories distributed simulation is the only feasible option since some hardware cannot be moved in an easy way.

Results presented in this thesis show that a complete vehicle or hardware-in-the-loop test laboratory can successfully be connected to a moving base driving simulator. Further, it is demonstrated that using a framework for distributed simulation eases communication and integration due to standardized interfaces. One identified potential problem is complexity in interface wrappers when integrating hardware-in-the-loop in a distributed simulation framework. From this aspect, it is important to consider the model design and the intersections between software and hardware models. Another important issue discussed is the increased delay in overhead time when using a framework for distributed simulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017. p. 18
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1777
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136146 (URN)10.3384/lic.diva-136146 (DOI)9789176855249 (ISBN)
Presentation
2017-05-12, Alan Turing, hus E, Campus Valla, Linköping University, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Vinnova, 2011-03994
Available from: 2017-03-30 Created: 2017-03-30 Last updated: 2019-10-28Bibliographically approved
2. Distributed Moving Base Driving Simulators: Technology, Performance, and Requirements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributed Moving Base Driving Simulators: Technology, Performance, and Requirements
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Development of new functionality and smart systems for different types of vehicles is accelerating with the advent of new emerging technologies such as connected and autonomous vehicles. To ensure that these new systems and functions work as intended, flexible and credible evaluation tools are necessary. One example of this type of tool is a driving simulator, which can be used for testing new and existing vehicle concepts and driver support systems. When a driver in a driving simulator operates it in the same way as they would in actual traffic, you get a realistic evaluation of what you want to investigate. Two advantages of a driving simulator are (1.) that you can repeat the same situation several times over a short period of time, and (2.) you can study driver reactions during dangerous situations that could result in serious injuries if they occurred in the real world. An important component of a driving simulator is the vehicle model, i.e., the model that describes how the vehicle reacts to its surroundings and driver inputs. To increase the simulator realism or the computational performance, it is possible to divide the vehicle model into subsystems that run on different computers that are connected in a network. A subsystem can also be replaced with hardware using so-called hardware-in-the-loop simulation, and can then be connected to the rest of the vehicle model using a specified interface. The technique of dividing a model into smaller subsystems running on separate nodes that communicate through a network is called distributed simulation.

This thesis investigates if and how a distributed simulator design might facilitate the maintenance and new development required for a driving simulator to be able to keep up with the increasing pace of vehicle development. For this purpose, three different distributed simulator solutions have been designed, built, and analyzed with the aim of constructing distributed simulators, including external hardware, where the simulation achieves the same degree of realism as with a traditional driving simulator. One of these simulator solutions has been used to create a parameterized powertrain model that can be configured to represent any of a number of different vehicles. Furthermore, the driver's driving task is combined with the powertrain model to monitor deviations. After the powertrain model was created, subsystems from a simulator solution and the powertrain model have been transferred to a Modelica environment. The goal is to create a framework for requirement testing that guarantees sufficient realism, also for a distributed driving simulation.

The results show that the distributed simulators we have developed work well overall with satisfactory performance. It is important to manage the vehicle model and how it is connected to a distributed system. In the distributed driveline simulator setup, the network delays were so small that they could be ignored, i.e., they did not affect the driving experience. However, if one gradually increases the delays, a driver in the distributed simulator will change his/her behavior. The impact of communication latency on a distributed simulator also depends on the simulator application, where different usages of the simulator, i.e., different simulator studies, will have different demands. We believe that many simulator studies could be performed using a distributed setup. One issue is how modifications to the system affect the vehicle model and the desired behavior. This leads to the need for methodology for managing model requirements. In order to detect model deviations in the simulator environment, a monitoring aid has been implemented to help notify test managers when a model behaves strangely or is driven outside of its validated region. Since the availability of distributed laboratory equipment can be limited, the possibility of using Modelica (which is an equation-based and object-oriented programming language) for simulating subsystems is also examined. Implementation of the model in Modelica has also been extended with requirements management, and in this work a framework is proposed for automatically evaluating the model in a tool.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019. p. 42
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1984
National Category
Computer Systems Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156537 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-156537 (DOI)9789176850909 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-06-04, Ada Lovelace, hus B, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-04-30 Created: 2019-04-28 Last updated: 2019-08-22Bibliographically approved

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