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Assessing the potential for an ongoing arms race within and between the sexes: selection and heritable variation
Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden / Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, USA.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6112-9586
Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, USA.
Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, USA / School of Botany and Zoology, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia.
Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, USA.
2005 (English)In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 59, no 7, p. 1540-1551Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In promiscuous species, sexual selection generates two opposing male traits: offense (acquiring new mates and supplanting stored sperm) and defense (enforcing fidelity on one's mates and preventing sperm displacement when this fails). Coevolution between these traits requires both additive genetic variation and associated natural selection. Previous work with Drosophila melanogaster found autosomal genetic variation for these traits among inbred lines from a mixture of populations, but only nonheritable genetic variation was found within a single outbred population. These results do not support ongoing antagonistic coevolution between offense and defense, nor between either of these male traits and female reproductive characters. Here we use a new method (hemiclonal analysis) to study genomewide genetic variation in a large outbred laboratory population of D. melanogaster. Hemiclonal analysis estimates the additive genetic variation among random, genomewide haplotypes taken from a large, outbred, locally adapted laboratory population and determines the direction of the selection gradient on this variation. In contrast to earlier studies, we found low but biologically significant heritable variation for defensive and offensive offspring production as well as all their components (P1, fidelity, P2, and remating). Genetic correlations between these traits were substantially different from those reported for inbred lines. A positive genetic correlation was found between defense and offense, demonstrating that some shared genes influence both traits. In addition to this common variation, evidence for unique genetic variation for each trait was also found, supporting an ongoing coevolutionary arms race between defense and offense. Reproductive conflict between males can strongly influence female fitness. Correspondingly, we found genetic variation in both defense and offense that affected female fitness. No evidence was found for intersexual conflict in the context of male defense, but we found substantial intersexual conflict in the context of male offensive sperm competitive ability. These results indicate that conflict between competing males also promotes an associated arms race between the sexes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2005. Vol. 59, no 7, p. 1540-1551
Keywords [en]
Coevolution, Drosophila melanogaster, interlocus intersexual conflict, interlocus intrasexual conflict, sexual selection, sperm competition
National Category
Biological Sciences Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137200DOI: 10.1111/j.0014-3820.2005.tb01803.xPubMedID: 16153039OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-137200DiVA, id: diva2:1094120
Available from: 2006-03-30 Created: 2017-05-09Bibliographically approved

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