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Restoring the Properties of Transparent Al-Doped ZnO Thin Film Electrodes Exposed to Ambient Air
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Lorraine, France.
University of Lorraine, France.
University of Lorraine, France.
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-1744-7322
Vise andre og tillknytning
2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 121, nr 27, s. 14426-14433Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films are known to degrade with exposure to humidity. Different AZO films deposited using reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) have been aged in ambient laboratory conditions and annealed at temperatures between 160 and 180 degrees C in a N-2 atmosphere. Their electrical and optical properties, which have been investigated both ex situ and in situ during the annealing, are improved. The results of the in situ measurements are interpreted in terms of a diffusion process, where hydroxyl groups are decomposed and water is diffusing out of the films. As hydroxyl groups are known to act as a trap for charge carriers in ZnO, their removal from the film can explain the improvement of the electrical properties by the annealing.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
AMER CHEMICAL SOC , 2017. Vol. 121, nr 27, s. 14426-14433
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139560DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b03020ISI: 000405761600006OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-139560DiVA, id: diva2:1130096
Merknad

Funding Agencies|European Commission

Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-08-08 Laget: 2017-08-08 Sist oppdatert: 2017-11-10
Inngår i avhandling
1. Deposition of Al-doped ZnO films by high power impulse magnetron sputtering
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Deposition of Al-doped ZnO films by high power impulse magnetron sputtering
2017 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are an important class of materials with many applications such as low emissivity coatings, or transparent electrodes for photovoltaics and flat panel displays. Among the possible TCO materials, Al-doped ZnO (AZO) is studied due to its relatively low cost and abundance of the raw materials. Thin films of AZO are commonly produced using physical vapour deposition techniques such as magnetron sputtering. However, there is a problem with the homogeneity of the films using reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS). This homogeneity problem can be related to the bombardment of the growing film with negative oxygen ions, that can cause additional acceptor defects and the formation of insulating secondary phases. In this work AZO films are deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), a technique in which high instantaneous current densities are achieved by short pulses of low duty cycle.

In the first part of this thesis, the possibility to improve the homogeneity of the deposited AZO films by using HiPIMS is demonstrated. This improvement can be related to the high instantaneous sputtering rate during the HiPIMS pulses, so the process can take place in the metal mode. This allows for a lower oxygen ion bombardment of the growing film, which can help to avoid the formation of secondary phases. Another problem of AZO is the stability of the properties in humid environments. To assess this problem, the degradation of the electrical properties after an aging procedure was investigated for films deposited by both DCMS and by HiPIMS. A method was proposed, to restore the properties of the films, using a low temperature annealing under N2 atmosphere. The improvement of the electrical properties of the films could be related to a diffusion process, where water is diffusing out of the films. Then, the influence of the substrate temperature on the properties of AZO films deposited by HiPIMS was studied. The electrical, optical and structural properties were found to improve with increasing substrate temperature up to 600 C. This improvement can be mostly explained by the increase in crystalline quality and the annealing of defects. Finally, the deposition of AZO films on flexible PET substrates was investigated. The films are growing as a thick porous layer of preferentially c-axis oriented columns on top of a thin dense seed layer. The evolution of the sheet resistance of the films after bending the films with different radii was studied. There is an increase in the sheet resistance of the films with decreasing bending radius, that is less pronounced for thicker films.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017. s. 85
Serie
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1889
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142925 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-142925 (DOI)9789176854181 (ISBN)
Disputas
2017-12-12, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-11-10 Laget: 2017-11-10 Sist oppdatert: 2019-10-11bibliografisk kontrollert

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