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Native target chemistry during reactive dc magnetron sputtering studied by ex-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4898-5115
Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2837-3656
2017 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 111, no 2, article id 021604Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of native Ti target surface chemistry during magnetron sputtering in an Ar/N-2 atmosphere. To avoid air exposure, the target is capped immediately after sputtering with a few-nm-thick Al overlayers; hence, information about the chemical state of target elements as a function of N-2 partial pressure p(N2) is preserved. Contrary to previous reports, which assume stoichiometric TiN formation, we present direct evidence, based on core-level XPS spectra and TRIDYN simulations, that the target surface is covered by TiNx with x varying in a wide range, from 0.27 to 1.18, depending on p(N2). This has far-reaching consequences both for modelling of the reactive sputtering process and for everyday thin film growth where detailed knowledge of the target state is crucial. Published by AIP Publishing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER INST PHYSICS , 2017. Vol. 111, no 2, article id 021604
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139818DOI: 10.1063/1.4993787ISI: 000405661700013OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-139818DiVA, id: diva2:1133900
Note

Funding Agencies|German Research Foundation (DFG) [SFB-TR 87]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant) [SFO Mat LiU 2009 00971]; Aforsk Foundation [16-359]; Carl Tryggers Stiftelse [CTS 15:219, CTS 14:431]

Available from: 2017-08-17 Created: 2017-08-17 Last updated: 2017-09-08

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Greczynski, GrzegorzHultman, Lars
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