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Enhanced thermal stability and mechanical properties of nitrogen deficient titanium aluminum nitride (Ti0.54Al0.46Ny) thin films by tuning the applied negative bias voltage
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Lorraine, France.
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Saarland University, Germany.
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. SECO Tools AB, Sweden.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-4577-0976
University of Lorraine, France.
Vise andre og tillknytning
2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 122, nr 6, artikkel-id 065301Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Aspects on the phase stability and mechanical properties of nitrogen deficient (Ti0.54Al0.46)N-y alloys were investigated. Solid solution alloys of (Ti,Al)N were grown by cathodic arc deposition. The kinetic energy of the impinging ions was altered by varying the substrate bias voltage from -30V to -80 V. Films deposited with a high bias value of -80V showed larger lattice parameter, finer columnar structure, and higher compressive residual stress resulting in higher hardness than films biased at -30V when comparing their as-deposited states. At elevated temperatures, the presence of nitrogen vacancies and point defects (anti-sites and self-interstitials generated by the ion-bombardment during coating deposition) in (Ti0.54Al0.46)N-0.87 influence the driving force for phase separation. Highly biased nitrogen deficient films have point defects with higher stability during annealing, which cause a delay of the release of the stored lattice strain energy and then accelerates the decomposition tendencies to thermodynamically stable c-TiN and w-AlN. Low biased nitrogen deficient films have retarded phase transformation to w-AlN, which results in the prolongment of age hardening effect up to 1100 degrees C, i.e., the highest reported temperature for Ti-Al-N material system. Our study points out the role of vacancies and point defects in engineering thin films with enhanced thermal stability and mechanical properties for high temperature hard coating applications. Published by AIP Publishing.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2017. Vol. 122, nr 6, artikkel-id 065301
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-140514DOI: 10.1063/1.4986350ISI: 000407742400032OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-140514DiVA, id: diva2:1140119
Merknad

Funding Agencies|European Unions Erasmus Mundus doctoral program in Materials Science and Engineering (DocMASE); Swedish Research Council [621-2012-4401]; Swedish government strategic research area grant AFM - SFO MatLiU [2009-00971]; VINNOVA [2013-02355]; DFG; federal state government of Saarland [INST 256/298-1 FUGG]; European Regional Development Fund [AME-Lab C/4-EFRE-13/2009/Br]

Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-09-11 Laget: 2017-09-11 Sist oppdatert: 2019-05-27
Inngår i avhandling
1. Defect-engineered (Ti,Al)N thin films
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Defect-engineered (Ti,Al)N thin films
2017 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

This thesis investigates the effect of point defects (nitrogen vacancies and interstitials) and multilayering ((Ti,Al)N/TiN) on the phase transformations in cathodic arc-evaporated cubic (Ti,Al)N thin films at elevated temperatures. Special attention is paid to the evolution of the beneficial spinodal decomposition into c-TiN and c-AlN, the detrimental formation of wurtzite AlN and the potential application as hard coating in cutting tools.

c-(Ti1-xAlx)Ny thin films with varying Al fractions and N content (y = 0.93 to 0.75) show a delay in the spinodal decomposition when increasing the amount of N vacancies. This results in a 300 °C upshift in the age hardening and a delay in the w-AlN formation, while additions of self-interstitials enhance phase separation. High temperature interaction between hard metal substrates and thin films is more pronounced when increasing N deficiency through diffusion of substrate elements into the film. Low N content films (y = 0.58 to 0.40) showed formation of additional phases such as Ti4AlN3, Ti2AlN, Al5Ti2 and Al3Ti during annealing and a transformation from Ti2AlN to Ti4AlN3 via intercalation. The multilayer structure of TiN/TiAlN results in surfacedirected spinodal decomposition that affects the decomposition behavior. Careful use of these effects appears as a promising method to improve cutting tool performance.

Abstract [de]

Diese Arbeit untersucht den Effekt von Punktdefekten (Stickstoffleerstellen und Zwischengitteratome) und Multilagen ((Ti,Al)N/TiN) auf die Phasenumwandlung in lichtbogenverdampften kubischen (Ti,Al)N-Dünnschichten bei erhöhten Temperaturen. Besonderes Augenmerk liegt auf der Entwicklung der vorteilhaften spinodalen Entmischung in c-TiN und c-AlN und der nachteiligen Bildung von Wurtzit-AlN, sowie der möglichen Anwendung als Hartstoffbeschichtung von Schneidwerkzeugen.

c-(Ti1-xAlx)Ny mit unterschiedlichem Al-Anteil und N-Gehalten von y = 0,93 bis 0,75 zeigt mit zunehmenden Stickstoffleerstellen eine Verzögerung der spinodalen Entmischung. Dadurch verschiebt sich die Ausscheidungshärtung um 300 °C zu höheren Temperaturen und die w-AlN-Bildung wird verzögert, während der Einbau von Eigenzwischengitteratomen die Entmischung beschleunigt. Die Hochtemperaturwechselwirkung zwischen Hartmetallsubstrat und Dünnschicht durch Diffusion von Substratelementen in die Schicht nimmt mit steigendem Stickstoffdefizit zu. Stickstoffarme Schichten (y = 0,58 bis 0,40) zeigen während der Wärmebehandlung zusätzliche Phasen wie Ti4AlN3, Ti2AlN, Al5Ti2 und Al3Ti und eine Umwandlung von Ti2AlN in Ti4AlN3 durch Interkalation. Die Multischichtstruktur von TiN/TiAlN führt zu einer oberflächengerichteten spinodalen Entmischung, die das Entmischungsverhalten beeinflusst. Ein gezielter Einsatz dieser Effekte erscheint als ein vielsprechender Weg, um die Leistungsfähigkeit von Schneidwerkzeugen zu verbessern.

Abstract [sv]

I denna avhandling behandlas inverkan av punktdefekter (kvävevakanser och interstitialer) och multilagring ((Ti,Al)N/TiN) på högtemperaturfasomvandlingar i tunna arcförångade skikt av kubiska (Ti,Al)N. Störst vikt har lagts på utvecklingen av det fördelaktiga spinodala sönderfallet till c-TiN och c-AlN, den ofördelaktiga omvandlingen till w-AlN och potentialen som hårda skikt i verktygstillämpningar.

Tunna c-(Ti1-xAlx)Ny skikt med olika Al-andel och en N-halt mellan (y = 0.93 och 0.75) uppvisar ökad undertryckning av det spinodala sönderfallet med ökat kvävevakanshalt. Detta resulterar i bildandet av w-AlN skiftas upp i temperatur vilket gör att åldershärdningen höjs med 300 °C. Däremot medför närvaron av självinterstitialer ett snabbare sönderfall. Växelverkan mellan hårdmetallsubstraten och de tunna skikten vid hög temperatur ökar med minskad kvävehalt i skiten genom diffusion av atomer från substratet in i filmen. Filmer med låg kvävehalt (y = 0.58 till 0.40) bildar även andra faser så som Ti4AlN3, Ti2AlN, Al5Ti2 och Al3Ti under värmebehandling och fasomvandlingen från Ti2AlN till Ti4AlN3 sker via en mekanism kallad intercalation. Multilagring av TiN/TiAlN resulterar i ett ytriktad spinodalt sönderfall vilket påverkar det totala sönderfallsförloppet. Nyttjande av dessa resultat syns som lovande vägar till förbättrade verktygsegenskaper.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017. s. 73
Serie
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1878
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142116 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-142116 (DOI)9789176854563 (ISBN)
Disputas
2017-11-14, House D3 3, Saarland University, DE-66123 Saarbrücken, Germany, Saarbrücken, 14:15 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-10-23 Laget: 2017-10-23 Sist oppdatert: 2019-10-11bibliografisk kontrollert
2. Phase stability and defect structures in (Ti,Al)N hard coatings
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Phase stability and defect structures in (Ti,Al)N hard coatings
2019 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

This study highlights the role of nitrogen vacancies and defect structures in engineering hard coatings with enhanced phase stability and mechanical properties for high temperature applications. Titanium aluminum nitride (Ti,Al)N based materials in the form of thin coatings has remained as an outstanding choice for protection of metal cutting tools due to its superior oxidation resistance and high-temperature wear resistance. High-temperature spinodal decomposition of metastable (Ti,Al)N into coherent c-TiN and c-AlN nm-sized domains results in high hardness at elevated temperatures. Even higher thermal input leads to transformation of c-AlN to w-AlN, which is detrimental to the mechanical properties of the coating. One mean to delay this transformation is to introduce nitrogen vacancies.

In this thesis, I show that by combining a reduction of the overall N-content of the c-(Ti,Al)Ny (y < 1) coating with a low substrate bias voltage during cathodic arc deposition an even more pronounced delay of the c-AlN to w-AlN phase transformation is achieved. Under such condition, age hardening is retained until 1100 ˚C, which is the highest temperature reported for (Ti,Al)N films. During cutting operations, the wear mechanism of the cathodicarc-deposited c-(Ti0.52Al0.48)Ny with N-contents of y = 0.92, 0.87, and 0.75 films are influenced by the interplay of nitrogen vacancies, microstructure, and chemical reactions with the workpiece material. The y = 0.75 coating contains the highest number of macroparticles and has an inhomogeneous microstructure after machining, which lower its flank and crater wear resistance. Age hardening of the y = 0.92 sample causes its superior flank wear resistance while the dense structure of the y = 0.87 sample prevents chemical wear that results in excellent crater wear resistance.

Heteroepitaxial c-(Ti1-x,Alx)Ny (y = 0.92, 0.79, and0.67) films were grown on MgO(001) and (111) substrates using magnetron putter deposition to examine the details of their defect structures during spinodal decomposition. At 900 ˚C, the films decompose to form coherent c-AlN- and c-TiN- rich domains with elongated shape along the elastically soft <001> direction. Deformation maps show that most strains occur near the interface of the segregated domains and inside the c-TiN domains. Dislocations favorably aggregate in c-TiN rather than c-AlN because the later has stronger directionality of covalent chemical bonds. At elevated temperature, the domain size of (001) and (111)- oriented c-(Ti,Al)Ny films increases with the nitrogen content. This indicates that there is a delay in coarsening due to the presence of more N vacancies in the film.

The structural and functional properties (Ti1-x,Alx)Ny are also influenced by its Al content (x). TiN and (Ti1-x,Alx)Ny (y = 1, x = 0.63 and x = 0.77) thin films were grown on MgO(111) substrates using magnetron sputtering technique. Both TiN and Ti0.27Al0.63N films are single crystals with cubic structure. (Ti0.23,Al0.77)N film has epitaxial cubic structure only in the first few atomic layers then it transitions to an epitaxial wurtzite layer, with an orientation relationship of c-(Ti0.23,Al0.77)N(111)[1-10]ǀǀw-(Ti0.23,Al0.77)N(0001)[11-20]. The w-(Ti0.23,Al0.77)N shows phase separation of coherent nm-sized domains with varying chemical composition during growth. After annealing at high temperature, the domains in w-(Ti0.23,Al0.77)N have coarsened. The domains in w-(Ti0.23,Al0.77)N are smaller compared to the domains in c-(Ti0.27,Al0.63)N film that has undergone spinodal decomposition. The results that emerged from this thesis are of great importance in the cutting tool industry and also in the microelectronics industry, because the layers examined have properties that are well suited for diffusion barriers.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019. s. 49
Serie
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1996
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157078 (URN)9789176850411 (ISBN)
Disputas
2019-06-18, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-05-27 Laget: 2019-05-27 Sist oppdatert: 2019-05-27bibliografisk kontrollert

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