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Lymphocytes eject interferogenic mitochondrial DNA webs in response to CpG and non-CpG oligodeoxynucleotides of class C
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3328-5060
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 115, no 3, p. E478-E487Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Circulating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is receiving increasing attention as a danger-associated molecular pattern in conditions such as autoimmunity, cancer, and trauma. We report here that human lymphocytes [B cells, T cells, natural killer (NK) cells], monocytes, and neutrophils derived from healthy blood donors, as well as B cells from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, rapidly eject mtDNA as web filament structures upon recognition of CpG and non-CpG oligodeoxynucleotides of class C. The release was quenched by ZnCl2, independent of cell death (apoptosis, necrosis, necroptosis, autophagy), and continued in the presence of TLR9 signaling inhibitors. B-cell mtDNA webs were distinct from neutrophil extracellular traps concerning structure, reactive oxygen species (ROS) dependence, and were devoid of antibacterial proteins. mtDNA webs acted as rapid (within minutes) messengers, priming antiviral type I IFN production. In summary, our findings point at a previously unrecognized role for lymphocytes in antimicrobial defense, utilizing mtDNA webs as signals in synergy with cytokines and natural antibodies, and cast light on the interplay between mitochondria and the immune system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington, DC, United States: National Academy of Sciences , 2018. Vol. 115, no 3, p. E478-E487
Keywords [en]
CpG-C, DAMP, immune DNA sensing, lymphocyte signaling, mitochondrial DNA release
National Category
Basic Medicine Immunology in the medical area
Research subject
Economic Information Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-144187DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711950115ISI: 000423091400018PubMedID: 29295921Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85042104216OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-144187DiVA, id: diva2:1172271
Funder
Swedish Cancer Society
Note

Funding agencies: Linkoping Medical Society; Linkoping University; ALF grants; Region Ostergotland, Sweden; Linkoping University Cancer; Ingrid Asp Foundation; Swedish Cancer Society

Available from: 2018-01-09 Created: 2018-01-09 Last updated: 2019-12-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The Contribution of Innate Immunity to the Pathogenesis of ANCA-associated Vasculitis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Contribution of Innate Immunity to the Pathogenesis of ANCA-associated Vasculitis
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) constitute a group of vasculitides characterized by neutrophil-rich necrotizing inflammation of small vessels and the presence of ANCA in the circulation. Dying neutrophils surrounding the walls of small vessels are a histological hallmark of AAV. Traditionally it has been assumed that these neutrophils die by necrosis, but neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have recently been visualized at the sites of vasculitic lesions. NETs were first described to be involved in capture and elimination of pathogens but dysregulated production and/or clearance of NETs are thought to contribute to vessel inflammation in AAV; directly by damaging endothelial cells and indirectly by acting as a link between the innate and adaptive immune system through the generation of pathogenic PR3-ANCA and MPO-ANCA that can activate neutrophils. ANCA can, however, be found in all individuals and are therefore suggested to belong to the repertoire of natural antibodies produced by innate-like B cells, implying that not all ANCA are pathogenic. 

In paper I, we found neutrophils in patients to be more prone to undergo NETosis/necrosis spontaneously compared with neutrophils in healthy controls (HC), as well as that active patients possessed elevated levels of NETs in the circulation. Our results also suggest that ANCA during remission could contribute to the clearance of NETs as we observed an inverse relation between ANCA and NETs. In paper II, we observed neutrophils in patients to be more easily activated upon ANCA stimulation as they produced more ROS than neutrophils in HC. In paper III, we showed for the first time that cells of adaptive immunity (B and T cells) in addition to cells of innate immunity can release ET-like structures, in this case consisting of mitochondrial (mt) DNA. mtDNA can act as a damage-associated pattern molecule (DAMP) and promote inflammation, and increased levels of mtDNA has been observed in AAV. Our finding broadens our perspective of the possible roles of T and B cells in immunological responses, and should be further investigated in AAV. In paper IV, we observed reduced frequencies of MZ-like B cells, considered to be innate-like B cells that produce natural antibodies, and of the proposed regulatory B (Breg) cell populations CD24highCD27+ and CD25+CD27+ B cells in patients, particularly in those with active disease. We also observed the phenotypes of these different Breg cell populations to be different from the corresponding cells in HC.

We hypothesize that the increased activation potential by neutrophils in AAV to produce ROS and undergo NETosis/necrosis contribute to the excessive inflammation as well as an increased antigen load of PR3 and MPO, and that this in combination with dysregulation of innate-like B cells and Breg cells could lead to break of tolerance to these antigens and production of pathogenic autoantibodies. ANCA can in turn activate neutrophils to release NETs, suggesting a vicious circle in disease development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. p. 91
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1545
National Category
Immunology in the medical area Urology and Nephrology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132327 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-132327 (DOI)9789176856598 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-12-01, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
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Available from: 2016-11-01 Created: 2016-11-01 Last updated: 2019-12-09Bibliographically approved

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Ingelsson, BjörnSöderberg, DanielStrid, TobiasSöderberg, AnitaBergh, Ann-CharlotteLoitto, Vesa-MattiLotfi, KouroshSegelmark, MårtenSpyrou, GiannisRosén, Anders

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Ingelsson, BjörnSöderberg, DanielStrid, TobiasSöderberg, AnitaBergh, Ann-CharlotteLoitto, Vesa-MattiLotfi, KouroshSegelmark, MårtenSpyrou, GiannisRosén, Anders
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Division of Cell BiologyFaculty of Medicine and Health SciencesDivision of Drug ResearchDivision of Microbiology and Molecular MedicineDepartment of HaematologyDepartment of Nephrology
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