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Evaluating gas chromatography with a halogen-specific detector for the determination of disinfection by-products in drinking water
Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7422-0853
Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Department of Chemistry, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9486-2749
Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2728-0941
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2019 (English)In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 26, p. 7305-7314Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The occurrence of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water has become an issue of concern during the past decades. The DBPs pose health risks and are suspected to cause various cancer forms, be genotoxic and have negative developmental effects. The vast chemical diversity of DBPs makes comprehensive monitoring challenging. Only few of the DBPs are regulated and included in analytical protocols. In this study, a method for simultaneous measurement of 20 DBPs from five different structural classes (both regulated and non-regulated) was investigated and further developed for 11 DBPs using solid phase extraction and gas chromatography coupled with a halogen specific detector (XSD). The XSD was highly selective towards halogenated DBPs, providing chromatograms with little noise. The method allowed detection down to 0.05 µg/L and showed promising results for the simultaneous determination of a range of neutral DBP classes. Compounds from two classes of emerging DBPs, more cytotoxic than the “traditional” regulated DBPs, were successfully determined using this method. However, haloacetic acids (HAAs) should be analyzed separately as some HAA methyl esters may degrade giving false positives of trihalomethanes (THMs). The method was tested on real water samples from two municipal waterworks where the target DBP concentrations were found below the regulatory limits of Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2019. Vol. 26, p. 7305-7314
Keywords [en]
Drinking water, Disinfection by-products, Trihalomethanes, Haloacetic acids, Haloacetonitriles, Halogen-specific detector
National Category
Analytical Chemistry Environmental Sciences Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145402DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-1419-2ISI: 000463824600002PubMedID: 29492811OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-145402DiVA, id: diva2:1186409
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2013-1077
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council for Sustainable Development, FORMAS [2013-1077]

Available from: 2018-02-28 Created: 2018-02-28 Last updated: 2022-06-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The occurrence of disinfection by-products in four Swedish drinking waterworks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The occurrence of disinfection by-products in four Swedish drinking waterworks
2022 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are unwanted, potentially toxic compounds formed when drinking water is disinfected with chemical disinfectants such as chlorine or chloramine. The levels of DBPs produced depends on parameters, such as levels of natural organic matter (NOM) and the nature and concentration of chemical disinfectant used. In this thesis, the effects of two different types of chemical disinfectants, chlorine and chloramine, are investigated in terms of levels of DBP production. The goal was to investigate if chlorine disinfection produces similar levels and types of DBPs as in case of chloramination.

Within the thesis work was also tested a method based on a gas chromatograph coupled with halogen selective detector (GC-XSD) to determine the known DBPs in the drinking water.

The results show that the formation of DBPs at chlorine or chloramine disinfection were similar. Still, chloramine is preferably used because it produces less legally regulated DBPs.

The GC-XSD worked well for the determination of DBPs in drinking water. Since XSD is very selective and specific towards halogens and easy to operate, therefore this setup not only a potential tool for routine DBPs monitoring at drinking water facilities, but it could also be used for the determination of unknow halogenated compounds.

Through increased knowledge in the formation of DBPs and their determination with GC-XSD can contribute to the development of better methods to quantify known and identify unknow halogenated organic compounds in treated drinking water and reduce public exposure to potentially toxic halogenated organic compounds.

Abstract [sv]

Desinfektionsbiprodukter (DBP) är oönskade kemikalier som bildas när dricksvatten desinficeras med desinfektionsmedel som klor eller kloramin. Halterna av DBP som produceras beror på parametrar som halten av naturligt organiskt material (NOM) och typ och koncentration av det använda desinfektionsmedlet. I denna avhandling undersöks hur mycket DBP:er som produceras när man använder antingen klor eller kloramin som kemiskt desinfektionsmedel. Målet var att undersöka om desinfektion med klor och kloramin producerar liknande koncentrationer av DBP.

Inom avhandlingsarbetet testades också en metod baserad på en gaskromatografi med halogenselektiv detektor (GC-XSD) för att bestämma kända DBP:er i dricksvattnet.

Resultaten visar att liknande nivåer av DBP bildades vid desinfektion med klor eller kloramin. Men kloramin används hellre än klor eftersom lägre halter av reglerade DBP:er bildas.

GC-XSD fungerade bra för bestämning av DBP i dricksvatten. Eftersom XSD är mycket selektiv och specifik för halogener och lätt att använda, är denna uppställning inte bara ett potentiellt verktyg för rutinmässig DBP-övervakning vid dricksvattenanläggningar, utan den kan också användas för att söka efter okända halogenerade föreningar.

Ökad kunskap om bildandet av DBP:er och hur dessa kan bestämmas med GC-XSD kan bidra till bättre metoder att hitta kända och okända halogenerade organiska föreningar i dricksvatten för att minska befolkningens exponering för potentiellt toxiska halogenerade organiska föreningar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2022. p. 23
Series
Faculty of Arts and Sciences thesis, ISSN 1401-4637 ; 131
National Category
Water Treatment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-185661 (URN)9789179293925 (ISBN)9789179293932 (ISBN)
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Note

Incorrect ISBNs in print version.

Available from: 2022-06-08 Created: 2022-06-08 Last updated: 2022-06-08Bibliographically approved

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Andersson, AnnaAshiq, Muhammad JamshaidKarlsson, SusanneBastviken, DavidKylin, Henrik

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