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Joint Pilot Design and Uplink Power Allocation in Multi-Cell Massive MIMO Systems
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. (Communication Systems Division)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5954-434X
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. (Communication Systems Division)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7599-4367
2018 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 2000-2015Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper considers pilot design to mitigate pilot contamination and provide good service for everyone in multi-cell Massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems. Instead of modeling the pilot design as a combinatorial assignment problem, as in prior works, we express the pilot signals using a pilot basis and treat the associated power coefficients as continuous optimization variables. We compute a lower bound on the uplink capacity for Rayleigh fading channels with maximum ratio detection that applies with arbitrary pilot signals. We further formulate the max-min fairness problem under power budget constraints, with the pilot signals and data powers as optimization variables. Because this optimization problem is non-deterministic polynomial-time hard due to signomial constraints, we then propose an algorithm to obtain a local optimum with polynomial complexity. Our framework serves as a benchmark for pilot design in scenarios with either ideal or non-ideal hardware. Numerical results manifest that the proposed optimization algorithms are close to the optimal solution obtained by exhaustive search for different pilot assignments and the new pilot structure and optimization bring large gains over the state-of-the-art suboptimal pilot design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Communications Society, 2018. Vol. 17, no 3, p. 2000-2015
Keywords [en]
Massive MIMO, Pilot Design, Signomial Programming, Geometric Programming, Hardware Impairments.
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145713DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2017.2787702ISI: 000427226500042Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85040035548OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-145713DiVA, id: diva2:1191346
Projects
CENIIT
Funder
ELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile CommunicationsEU, Horizon 2020, 641985
Note

Funding agencies:This work was supported in part by the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under Grant 641985 (5Gwireless), in part by ELLIIT, and in part by CENIIT. This paper was presented at the IEEE ICC 2017. The associate editor coordinating the review of this paper and approving it for publication was T. Lok.

Available from: 2018-03-19 Created: 2018-03-19 Last updated: 2019-12-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Spatial Resource Allocation in Massive MIMO Communication: From Cellular to Cell-Free
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatial Resource Allocation in Massive MIMO Communication: From Cellular to Cell-Free
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) is considered as an heir of the multi-user MIMO technology and it has gained lots of attention from both academia and industry since the last decade. By equipping base stations (BSs) with hundreds of antennas in a compact array or a distributed manner, this new technology can provide very large multiplexing gains by serving many users on the same time-frequency resources and thereby bring significant improvements in spectral efficiency (SE) and energy efficiency (EE) over the current wireless networks. The transmit power, pilot training, and spatial transmission resources need to be allocated properly to the users to achieve the highest possible performance. This is called resource allocation and can be formulated as design utility optimization problems. If the resource allocation in Massive MIMO is optimized, the technology can handle the exponential growth in both wireless data traffic and number of wireless devices, which cannot be done by the current cellular network technology.

In this thesis, we focus on the five different resource allocation aspects in Massive MIMO communications: The first part of the thesis studies if power control and advanced coordinated multipoint (CoMP) techniques are able to bring substantial gains to multi-cell Massive MIMO systems compared to the systems without using CoMP. More specifically, we consider a network topology with no cell boundary where the BSs can collaborate to serve the users in the considered coverage area. We focus on a downlink (DL) scenario in which each BS transmits different data signals to each user. This scenario does not require phase synchronization between BSs and therefore has the same backhaul requirements as conventional Massive MIMO systems, where each user is preassigned to only one BS. The scenario where all BSs are phase synchronized to send the same data is also included for comparison. We solve a total transmit power minimization problem in order to observe how much power Massive MIMO BSs consume to provide the requested quality of service (QoS) of each user. A max-min fairness optimization is also solved to provide every user with the same maximum QoS regardless of the propagation conditions.

The second part of the thesis considers a joint pilot design and uplink (UL) power control problem in multi-cell Massive MIMO. The main motivation for this work is that the pilot assignment and pilot power allocation is momentous in Massive MIMO since the BSs are supposed to construct linear detection and precoding vectors from the channel estimates. Pilot contamination between pilot-sharing users leads to more interference during data transmission. The pilot design is more difficult if the pilot signals are reused frequently in space, as in Massive MIMO, which leads to greater pilot contamination effects. Related works have only studied either the pilot assignment or the pilot power control, but not the joint optimization. Furthermore, the pilot assignment is usually formulated as a combinatorial problem leading to prohibitive computational complexity. Therefore, in the second part of this thesis, a new pilot design is proposed to overcome such challenges by treating the pilot signals as continuous optimization variables. We use those pilot signals to solve different max-min fairness optimization problems with either ideal hardware or hardware impairments.

The third part of this thesis studies a two-layer decoding method that mitigates inter-cell interference in multi-cell Massive MIMO systems. In layer one, each BS estimates the channels to intra-cell users and uses the estimates for local decoding within the cell. This is followed by a second decoding layer where the BSs cooperate to mitigate inter-cell interference. An UL achievable SE expression is computed for arbitrary two-layer decoding schemes, while a closed form expression is obtained for correlated Rayleigh fading channels, maximum-ratio combining (MRC), and largescale fading decoding (LSFD) in the second layer. We formulate a sum SE maximization problem with both the data power and LSFD vectors as optimization variables. Since the problem is non-convex, we develop an algorithm based on the weighted minimum mean square error (MMSE) approach to obtain a stationary point with low computational complexity.

Motivated by recent successes of deep learning in predicting the solution to an optimization problem with low runtime, the fourth part of this thesis investigates the use of deep learning for power control optimization in Massive MIMO. We formulate the joint data and pilot power optimization for maximum sum SE in multi-cell Massive MIMO systems, which is a non-convex problem. We propose a new optimization algorithm, inspired by the weighted MMSE approach, to obtain a stationary point in polynomial time. We then use this algorithm together with deep learning to train a convolutional neural network to perform the joint data and pilot power control in sub-millisecond runtime. The solution is suitable for online optimization.

Finally, the fifth part of this thesis considers a large-scale distributed antenna system that serves the users by coherent joint transmission called Cell-free Massive MIMO. For a given user set, only a subset of the access points (APs) is likely needed to satisfy the users' performance demands. To find a flexible and energy-efficient implementation, we minimize the total power consumption at the APs in the DL, considering both the hardware consumed and transmit powers, where APs can be turned off to reduce the former part. Even though this is a nonconvex optimization problem, a globally optimal solution is obtained by solving a mixed-integer second-order cone program (SOCP). We also propose low-complexity algorithms that exploit group-sparsity or received power strength in the problem formulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2020. p. 66
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 2036
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-162582 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-162582 (DOI)9789179299415 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-01-23, Ada Lovelace, Building B, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-12-09 Created: 2019-12-09 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved

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Van Chien, TrinhBjörnson, EmilLarsson, Erik G.

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