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Reference binding energies of transition metal carbides by core-level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy free from Ar+ etching artefacts
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-4898-5115
Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-2837-3656
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 436, s. 102-110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

We report x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core level binding energies (BEs) for the widely-applicable groups IVb-VIb transition metal carbides (TMCs) TiC, VC, CrC, ZrC, NbC, MoC, HfC, TaC, and WC. Thin film samples are grown in the same deposition system, by dc magnetron co-sputtering from graphite and respective elemental metal targets in Ar atmosphere. To remove surface contaminations resulting from exposure to air during sample transfer from the growth chamber into the XPS system, layers are either (i) Ar+ ion-etched or (ii) UHV-annealed in situ prior to XPS analyses. High resolution XPS spectra reveal that even gentle etching affects the shape of core level signals, as well as BE values, which are systematically offset by 0.2-0.5 eV towards lower BE. These destructive effects of Ar+ ion etch become more pronounced with increasing the metal atom mass due to an increasing carbon-to-metal sputter yield ratio. Systematic analysis reveals that for each row in the periodic table (3d, 4d, and 5d) C 1s BE increases from left to right indicative of a decreased charge transfer from TM to C atoms, hence bond weakening. Moreover, C 1s BE decreases linearly with increasing carbide/metal melting point ratio. Spectra reported here, acquired from a consistent set of samples in the same instrument, should serve as a reference for true deconvolution of complex XPS cases, including multinary carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2018. Vol. 436, s. 102-110
Nyckelord [en]
TiC; XPS; Magnetron sputtering; Binding energy; VC; CrC; NbC; ZrC; MoC; HfC; TaC; WC
Nationell ämneskategori
Oorganisk kemi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145736DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2017.11.264ISI: 000425723100011OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-145736DiVA, id: diva2:1192543
Anmärkning

Funding Agencies|Aforsk foundation [16-359]; Carl Tryggers Stiftelse [CTS 15:219, CTS 14:431]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation Scholar [KAW2016.0358]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) [RIF14-0053]

Tillgänglig från: 2018-03-22 Skapad: 2018-03-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-04-20

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Greczynski, GrzegorzHultman, Lars

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