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PREPARE: presurgery physiotherapy for patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorder: a randomized controlled trial
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Spinal Surgery. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3707-5869
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Bond University, Queensland, Australia.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4318-9216
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2018 (English)In: The spine journal, ISSN 1529-9430, E-ISSN 1878-1632, Vol. 18, no 8, p. 1347-1355Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Context

Surgery because of disc herniation or spinal stenosis results mostly in large improvement in the short-term, but mild to moderate improvements for pain and disability at long-term follow-up. Prehabilitation has been defined as augmenting functional capacity before surgery, which may have beneficial effect on outcome after surgery.

Purpose

The aim was to study if presurgery physiotherapy improves function, pain, and health in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorder scheduled for surgery.

Study Design

A single-blinded, two-arm, randomized controlled trial (RCT).

Patient Sample

A total of 197 patients were consecutively included at a spine clinic. The inclusion criteria were patients scheduled for surgery because of disc herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, or degenerative disc disease (DDD), 25–80 years of age.

Outcome Measures

Primary outcome was Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Secondary outcomes were pain intensity, anxiety, depression, self-efficacy, fear avoidance, physical activity, and treatment effect.

Methods

Patients were randomized to either presurgery physiotherapy or standardized information, with follow-up after the presurgery intervention as well as 3 and 12 months post surgery. The study was funded by regional research funds for US$77,342. No conflict of interest is declared.

Results

The presurgery physiotherapy group had better ODI, visual analog scale (VAS) back pain, EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D), EQ-VAS, Fear Avoidance Belief Questionnaire-Physical Activity (FABQ-PA), Self-Efficacy Scale (SES), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) depression scores and activity level compared with the waiting-list group after the presurgery intervention. The improvements were small, but larger than the study-specific minimal clinical important change (MCIC) in VAS back and leg pain, EQ-5D, and FABQ-PA, and almost in line with MCIC in ODI and Physical Component Summary (PCS) in the physiotherapy group. Post surgery, the only difference between the groups was higher activity level in the physiotherapy group compared with the waiting-list group.

Conclusions

Presurgery physiotherapy decreases pain, risk of avoidance behavior, and worsening of psychological well-being, and improves quality of life and physical activity levels before surgery compared with waiting-list controls. These results were maintained only for activity levelspost surgery. Still, presurgery selection, content, dosage of exercises, and importance of being active in a presurgery physiotherapy intervention is of interest to study further to improve long-term outcome.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018. Vol. 18, no 8, p. 1347-1355
Keywords [en]
Disc herniation, Function, Physiotherapy, Spinal stenosis, Stratification, Surgery
National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147620DOI: 10.1016/j.spinee.2017.12.009ISI: 000443585000006PubMedID: 29253630Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85044627865OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-147620DiVA, id: diva2:1202362
Available from: 2018-04-27 Created: 2018-04-27 Last updated: 2019-05-01Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Pre-surgery physiotherapy and pain thresholds in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorders
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pre-surgery physiotherapy and pain thresholds in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorders
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Patients scheduled for spinal surgery often experience long duration of pain, which may influence the pain-regulation system, function and health and have an impact on post-surgery outcome. Prehabilitation potentially augments functional capacity before surgery, which may have beneficial effects after surgery.

Aim: The overall aim of the thesis is to study pre-surgery physiotherapy and somatosensory function in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorders and to explore the patients’ experiences of pre-surgery physiotherapy.

Methods: Somatosensory function was measured with quantitative sensory testing (QST). Pre-surgery physiotherapy was evaluated with patient-reported outcome measures (n = 197). Patients’ experiences of how symptoms are explained and their experiences of the influences on back-related health after pre-surgery physiotherapy were explored.

Results: Half of the patients reported back or leg pain for more than 2 years. On a group level, the somatosensory profiles were within the reference range. On an individual level, an altered somatosensory profile was found in 23/105 patients, these were older, more often women, and reported higher pain, larger pain distribution and worse SF-36 MCS (mental health component summary). Patients with disc herniation, more sensitive to pressure pain in the hand presurgery, was associated with poorer function, self-efficacy, anxiety and depression score pre-surgery, worse function, self-efficacy and leg pain 3 months post-surgery and worse health related quality of life, self-efficacy, depression score 1 year postsurgery. The results for sensitivity for cold pain were similar, except that it even was associated with poorer function and pain 1 year post-surgery. The pre-surgery physiotherapy group had less back pain, better function, health, self-efficacy, fear avoidance score, depression score and physical activity level than the waiting-list group after the pre-surgery intervention. The effects were small. Both groups improved significantly after surgery, with no differences between groups, except that the higher physical activity level in the physiotherapy group remained at the 1-year follow-up. Only 58% of the patients reported a minimum of one visit for rehabilitation during the 1 year preceding the decision to undergo surgery. Patients experienced that pre-surgery physiotherapy had influenced symptoms, physical function, coping, well-being and social functioning to various degrees. Pre-surgery physiotherapy was experienced as a tool for reassurance and an opportunity to reflect about treatment and lifestyle. The patients mainly used biomedical explanatory models based on image reports to explain their backrelated symptoms. Both broader and more narrow, as well as lack of explanations of symptoms emerged. Further, wanting and sometimes struggling to be wellinformed about symptoms and interventions were described.

Conclusions: Being more sensitive to pressure- and cold pain in the hand, as a sign of widespread pain pre-surgery, was associated with poorer function, pain and health at post-surgery in patients with disc herniation. Pre-surgery physiotherapy decreased pain, fear avoidance, improved health related quality of life; and it decreased the risk of a worsening in psychological well-being before surgery. The improvements were small, and improvements after surgery were similar for both groups. At the 1-year follow-up, the physiotherapy group still had a higher activity level than the waiting list group. The pre-surgery physiotherapy was well tolerated. Patients’ reported experiences also illustrates the influence on function, pain and health. Patients experienced that pre-surgery physiotherapy provided reassurance and gave time to reflect on treatments and lifestyle. Symptoms were mainly described in line with a biomedical explanatory model. Those using a broader explanation were confident that physiotherapy and self-management could influence their back-related symptoms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018. p. 86
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1629
National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150553 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-150553 (DOI)9789176852767 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-09-21, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköping, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-08-27 Created: 2018-08-27 Last updated: 2019-01-31Bibliographically approved

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Lindbäck, YvonneTropp, HansEnthoven, PaulAbbott, AllanÖberg, Birgitta

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