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Control-oriented modeling of two-stroke diesel engines with exhaust gas recirculation for marine applications
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1584-8165
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8646-8998
2019 (English)In: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment (Part M), ISSN 1475-0902, E-ISSN 2041-3084, Vol. 233, no 2, p. 551-574Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Large marine two-stroke diesel engines are widely used as propulsion systems for shipping worldwide and are facing stricter NOx emission limits. Exhaust gas recirculation is introduced to these engines to reduce the produced combustion NOx to the allowed levels. Since the current number of engines built with exhaust gas recirculation is low and engine testing is very expensive, a powerful alternative for developing exhaust gas recirculation controllers for such engines is to use control-oriented simulation models. Unfortunately, the same reasons that motivate the use of simulation models also hinder the capacity to obtain sufficient measurement data at different operating points for developing the models. A mean value engine model of a large two-stroke diesel with exhaust gas recirculation that can be simulated faster than real time is presented and validated. An analytic model for the cylinder pressure that captures the effects of changes in the fuel control inputs is also developed and validated with cylinder pressure measurements. A parameterization procedure that deals with the low number of measurement data available is proposed. After the parameterization, the model is shown to capture the stationary operation of the real engine well. The transient prediction capability of the model is also considered satisfactory which is important if the model is to be used for exhaust gas recirculation controller development during transients. Furthermore, the experience gathered while developing the model about essential signals to be measured is summarized, which can be very helpful for future applications of the model. Finally, models for the ship propeller and resistance are also investigated, showing good agreement with the measured ship sailing signals during maneuvers. These models give a complete vessel model and make it possible to simulate various maneuvering scenarios, giving different loading profiles that can be used to investigate the performance of exhaust gas recirculation and other controllers during transients.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019. Vol. 233, no 2, p. 551-574
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147828DOI: 10.1177/1475090218768992ISI: 000470866500011OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-147828DiVA, id: diva2:1205673
Conference
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers
Note

Funding agencies: European Union [634135]

Available from: 2018-05-15 Created: 2018-05-15 Last updated: 2019-07-15
In thesis
1. Modeling and Control of EGR on Marine Two-Stroke Diesel Engines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and Control of EGR on Marine Two-Stroke Diesel Engines
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The international marine shipping industry is responsible for the transport of around 90% of the total world trade. Low-speed two-stroke diesel engines usually propel the largest trading ships. This engine type choice is mainly motivated by its high fuel efficiency and the capacity to burn cheap low-quality fuels. To reduce the marine freight impact on the environment, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has introduced stricter limits on the engine pollutant emissions. One of these new restrictions, named Tier III, sets the maximum NOx emissions permitted. New emission reduction technologies have to be developed to fulfill the Tier III limits on two-stroke engines since adjusting the engine combustion alone is not sufficient. There are several promising technologies to achieve the required NOx reductions, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is one of them.  For automotive applications, EGR is a mature technology, and many of the research findings can be used directly in marine applications. However, there are some differences in marine two-stroke engines, which require further development to apply and control EGR.

The number of available engines for testing EGR controllers on ships and test beds is low due to the recent introduction of EGR. Hence, engine simulation models are a good alternative for developing controllers, and many different engine loading scenarios can be simulated without the high costs of running real engine tests. The primary focus of this thesis is the development and validation of models for two-stroke marine engines with EGR. The modeling follows a Mean Value Engine Model (MVEM) approach, which has a low computational complexity and permits faster than real-time simulations suitable for controller testing. A parameterization process that deals with the low measurement data availability, compared to the available data on automotive engines, is also investigated and described. As a result, the proposed model is parameterized to two different two-stroke engines showing a good agreement with the measurements in both stationary and dynamic conditions.

Several engine components have been developed. One of these is a new analytic in-cylinder pressure model that captures the influence of the injection and exhaust valve timings without increasing the simulation time. A new compressor model that can extrapolate to low speeds and pressure ratios in a physically sound way is also described. This compressor model is a requirement to be able to simulate low engine loads. Moreover, a novel parameterization algorithm is shown to handle well the model nonlinearities and to obtain a good model agreement with a large number of tested compressor maps. Furthermore, the engine model is complemented with dynamic models for ship and propeller to be able to simulate transient sailing scenarios, where good EGR controller performance is crucial. The model is used to identify the low load area as the most challenging for the controller performance, due to the slower engine air path dynamics. Further low load simulations indicate that sensor bias can be problematic and lead to an undesired black smoke formation, while errors in the parameters of the controller flow estimators are not as critical. This result is valuable because for a newly built engine a proper sensor setup is more straightforward to verify than to get the right parameters for the flow estimators.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018. p. 200
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1904
Keywords
Modeling for control, Ship Propulsion, Dynamic Simulation, Exhaust Gas Recirculation, Mean Value Engine Model, Parameterization, Compressor, Model Extrapolation
National Category
Control Engineering Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-144596 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-144596 (DOI)9789176853689 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-03-23, Ada Lovelace, Ingång 27, B-huset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 634135VINNOVA, LINK-SIC
Available from: 2018-01-30 Created: 2018-01-30 Last updated: 2018-05-15Bibliographically approved

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Llamas, XavierEriksson, Lars

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