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”Fysisk aktivitet –att röra sig och må väl.” Villkor och dilemman för äldres fysiskaaktivitet: En observations- och intervjustudie
Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division Ageing and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4980-4184
2018 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
"Physical activity - to move about and feel well" Conditions and dilemmas for older people's physical activity : An observation and interview study (English)
Abstract [sv]

Fysisk aktivitet beskrivs vara positiv både för den fysiska och den psykiska hälsan för personer i alla åldrar. Det finns rekommendationer för hur mycket fysisk aktivitet människor bör ägna sig åt varje dag. Idag finns även rekommendationer för fysisk aktivitet framtagna för personer som bor i särskilt boende.

Syftet med avhandlingen är att belysa olika aspekter av fysisk aktivitet i särskilt boende utifrån dem som bor där, dem som arbetar i verksamheten samt utifrån förutsättningarna i den fysiska miljön. Tidigare forskning visar vikten av att vara fysiskt aktiv, samt att det finns risk för passivitet när människor flyttar till särskilt boende. Det är därför angeläget att undersöka villkoren för fysisk aktivitet i den speciella miljö som det särskilda boendet utgör.

En etnografisk metod har använts där observationer, intervjuer och informationsbroschyrer utgjort det empiriska materialet.

Resultatet visar att äldre personer och personal i särskilt boende inte definierar begreppet fysisk aktivitet på samma sätt utan att det finns olika uppfattningar om vad begreppet innebär. De kulturer och normer som påverkar hur personalen tänker kring fysisk aktivitet har betydelse. Det finns därvid även en acceptans för att äldres individuella önskemål inte alltid kan tillgodoses. Fysioterapeuten förefaller inte ha en tydlig roll på det särskilda boendet, speciellt inte när det gäller preventiva insatser. De rekommendationer för fysisk aktivitet som finns används sällan och uppnås inte heller. Den fysiska miljön har dock betydelse för om fysisk aktivitet främjas eller förhindras. Det finns ett antal faktorer som kan uppfattas främjande eller begränsande för individens möjlighet att vara fysiskt aktiv. De fysiska faktorerna går i vissa fall att påverka från att utgöra en begränsande faktor till att förändras och bli en främjande faktor. Det finns en skillnad när det gäller omfattningen av fysisk aktivitet på det boende som har lokaler som är avsedda för just detta ändamål, i jämförelse med enheter där sådana lokaler saknas.

Abstract [en]

Physical activity is described as being positive for both physical and mental health and for people of all ages. A daily level and amount of physical activity has been recommended for older people. There are also specific recommendations for people living in assisted living facilities.

The purpose of this dissertation is to illustrate different aspects of physical activity in assisted living facilities in relation to the people living, and the people working, in assisted living facilities. Previous research shows the importance of being physically active and the risk of passivity when people move to assisted living facilities. It is therefore important to examine the conditions of physical activity in the particular environment that the assisted living facilities consist of.

An ethnographic method has been used for which observations, interviews and information brochures constitute the empirical material.

The results show that older people and staff do not always define the concept of physical activity in the same way, and what is meant by the term is perceived differently. The cultures and norms for how staff think about physical activity is of great importance. There is an acceptance that the older person’s individual wishes cannot be met. Physiotherapists appear to have no clear role in the assisted living facilities, in particular in regard to preventive physical activity. The national recommendations for physical activity are rarely used and are not achieved. The physical environment is important and can promote or prevent physical activity. There are a number of factors that can be perceived as promoting or limiting the individual’s ability to be physically active. In some cases, the physical factors can influence a limiting factor to change and to become a promoting factor. There is a difference between the extent of physical activity in assisted living facilities which have dedicated premises for this purpose, compared to facilities where such premises are lacking.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018. , p. 86
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Sciences, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 749
Keywords [en]
Physical activity, old people, assisted living facilities, cultures, physical environment
Keywords [sv]
Fysisk aktivitet, äldre, särskilt boende, kulturer, fysisk miljö
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151023DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-151023ISBN: 9789176852330 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-151023DiVA, id: diva2:1247169
Public defence
2018-09-28, K1, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Norrköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Perceptions of physical activity among elderly residents and professionals in assisted living facilities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perceptions of physical activity among elderly residents and professionals in assisted living facilities
2017 (English)In: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity, ISSN 1813-7253, E-ISSN 1861-6909, Vol. 14, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Physical activity is often described as being important for people of all ages, but what different people mean when they talk about physical activity is unclear. A phenomenographic method was used to analyze how 13 older people and 17 professionals answer the question, "If I say physical activity, what does the concept mean to you?" as part of semi-structured interviews conducted in four assisted living facilities in two different municipalities. We identified a number of different perceptions of physical activity, with the older people and professionals having different responses. Elderly and professionals alike, define physical activity as a requirement for life and as an opportunity to maintain the body although they define the concepts in different ways. Elderly define the concept as a way to create meaning and the professionals have the attitude that the concept means everyday activities. The concept of physical activity may be defined in many different ways. This study has shown that elderly and professionals do not define physical activity in the same way. Therefore, professionals need to be aware of these differences when talking with elderly about individual needs in everyday life.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2017
Keywords
Older people; Residential care; Qualitative interviews; Phenomenography; Variation of perceptions; Descriptive categories
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-135717 (URN)10.1186/s11556-017-0171-9 (DOI)000394341900001 ()28203305 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-03-17 Created: 2017-03-17 Last updated: 2018-09-11
2. Approaches to physical activity at assisted living facilities: from the perspective of older people and physiotherapists
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Approaches to physical activity at assisted living facilities: from the perspective of older people and physiotherapists
2018 (English)In: European Journal of Physiotherapy, ISSN 2167-9169, E-ISSN 2167-9177, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Aim: Physical activity has been described as important for the well-being of all individuals, including the very old. The aim of this study was to investigate how physical activity is performed at assisted living facilities, the situations in which older people were and wanted to be physically active and the role of the physiotherapist at each facility.

Methods: To achieve this aim, an ethnographic study including observations and interviews was conducted at four assisted living facilities.

Results: The results show that physical activity neither was an issue in focus at any of the assisted living facilities, nor were recommendations on physical activity followed. Individuals that were able to exercise themselves could do so, whereas those in need of assistance had but limited possibilities to be physically active. There was a need for physical activity that the staff do not necessarily and sufficiently identify.

Conclusion: The study illustrated that there were major variations in how older people engaged in physical activity and how physical activities were part of everyday life. Physiotherapists played no clear role at the facilities, especially with regard to preventive exercise. Older individuals were not involved in determining which activities should be made available to the residents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
Physiotherapy, participation, elderly care, ethnography, observations, interviews
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Physiotherapy Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151021 (URN)10.1080/21679169.2018.1465120 (DOI)2-s2.0-85046025809 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved
3. Fysisk aktivitet för äldre på särskilda boenden: Om inställningar och handlande i svensk äldreomsorg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fysisk aktivitet för äldre på särskilda boenden: Om inställningar och handlande i svensk äldreomsorg
2018 (Swedish)In: Journal of Care Research, ISSN 2387-5976, E-ISSN 2387-5984, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 165-176Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Fysisk aktivitet för äldre beskrivs i litteraturen som något positivt och viktigt och har kommit i fokus under senare år. I svensk äldreomsorg dominerar ett aktivitetsteoretiskt synsätt och det finns även internationella rekommendationer om fysisk aktivitet för äldre. Få studier har dock undersökt hur behovet av fysisk aktivitet tillfredsställs i det särskilda boendet.

Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur äldreomsorgens personal tänker och agerar när det gäller fysisk aktivitet för äldre. Det empiriska materialet består av observationer och intervjuer på fyra särskilda boenden i två olika svenska kommuner.

Resultaten visar betydelsen av rådande kulturer och normer för hur personalen tänker och agerar kring fysisk aktivitet. Det finns en motsättning mellan hur personalen diskuterar äldres önskemål om stöd för fysisk aktivitet och hur hänsyn tas till fysisk aktivitet i det dagliga arbetet. Denna motsättning visar sig genom att personalen beskriver vikten av fysisk aktivitet för de äldre personerna samtidigt som denna prioriteras bort till förmån för andra arbetsuppgifter. Det förefaller ha skapats en acceptans för att äldres individuella önskemål inte kan tillgodoses om personalen har andra uppgifter att utföra.

Abstract [en]

Physical activity is described in the literature as positive and important, and has come into focus in recent years. An activity-based theoretical approach dominates in Swedish eldercare, and there are also international recommendations on physical activity for older people. Nevertheless, few studies have explored how the need for physical activity is satisfied at assisted living facilities.

The aim of this study was to investigate how professionals working in eldercare think about and act to promote physical activities for elderly people. The empirical data consists of observations and interviews conducted at four assisted living facilities in two different Swedish municipalities.

The results show how cultures and norms are important for how professionals think and act regarding physical activity. There is a contradiction between how professionals discuss elderly people’s need for support for physical activity and how they act in their day-to-day work. There seems to be an acceptance that elderly people’s individual needs cannot be met if professionals have other tasks to perform.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Universitetsforlaget, 2018
Keywords
Professional role, older people’s requests, routines, norms, Professional role, older people’s requests, routines, norms, Personalens roll, äldres önskemål, rutiner, normsystem
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151022 (URN)10.18261/issn.2387-5984-2018-02-12 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved

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Mahrs-Träff, Annsofie

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