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Innovative drinking water treatment techniques reduce the disinfection-induced oxidative stress and genotoxic activity
SLU, Uppsala.
Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7422-0853
SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
Norrvatten, Solna.
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2019 (English)In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 5, p. 182-192Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Disinfection of drinking water using chlorine can lead to the formation of genotoxic by-products whenchlorine reacts with natural organic matter (NOM). A vast number of such disinfection by-products(DBPs) have been identified, making it almost impossible to routinely monitor all DBPs with chemicalanalysis. In this study, a bioanalytical approach was used, measuring oxidative stress (Nrf2 activity),genotoxicity (micronucleus test), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation to evaluate an innovativewater treatment process, including suspended ion exchange, ozonation, in-line coagulation,ceramic microfiltration, and granular activated carbon. Chlorination was performed in laboratory scaleafter each step in the treatment process in order to investigate the effect of each treatment process to theformation of DBPs. Suspended ion exchange had a high capacity to remove dissolved organic carbon(DOC) and to decrease UV absorbance and Nrf2 activity in non-chlorinated water. High-dose chlorination(10 mg Cl2 L-1) of raw water caused a drastic induction of Nrf2 activity, which was decreased by 70% inwater chlorinated after suspended ion exchange. Further reduction of Nrf2 activity following chlorinationwas achieved by ozonation and the concomitant treatment steps. The ozonation treatment resulted indecreased Nrf2 activity in spite of unchanged DOC levels. However, a strong correlation was found betweenUV absorbing compounds and Nrf2 activity, demonstrating that Nrf2 inducing DBPs were formedfrom pre-cursors of a specific NOM fraction, constituted of mainly aromatic compounds. Moreover, highdosechlorination of raw water induced genotoxicity. In similarity to the DOC levels, UV absorbance andNrf2 activity, the disinfection-induced genotoxicity was also reduced by each treatment step of theinnovative water treatment technique. AhR activity was observed in the water produced by the conventionalprocess and in the raw water, but the activity was clearly decreased by the ozonation step inthe innovative water treatment process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019. Vol. 5, p. 182-192
Keywords [en]
Drinking water, disinfection byproducts, oxidative stress, Nrf2, genotoxicity
National Category
Environmental Sciences Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Occupational Health and Environmental Health Food Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155072DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2019.02.052ISI: 000464488500018PubMedID: 30849732Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85062423705OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-155072DiVA, id: diva2:1295750
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2013-01077
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council Formas, Sweden [2014-1435, 2012-2124, 2018-02191, 2013-01077]; Linkoping University; SLU environmental monitoring programme on a Nontoxic environment

Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2021-02-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Uncharted Waters: Non-target analysis of disinfection by-products in drinking water
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Uncharted Waters: Non-target analysis of disinfection by-products in drinking water
2021 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Okända Vatten : Analys av desinfektionsbiprodukter i dricksvatten
Abstract [en]

Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are potentially toxic compounds formed when drinking water is treated with disinfectants, such as chlorine or chloramine. A large proportion of the exposure to DBPs is still unknown and the health risks observed through epidemiological studies cannot be explained by DBPs known today. In this thesis, a part of the unknown DBP fraction is investigated, covering a wide range of non-volatile, chlorine/bromine-containing DBPs. The goals were to investigate how the compositions of these DBPs differ between water treatment plants, how their occurrence changes in the distribution system until reaching consumers and how new treatment techniques can reduce their formation and toxicity. To analyze unknown DBPs, a non-targeted approach adopting ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), was used, where the mass of molecules is measured with such accuracy that the elemental composition of individual DBPs can be calculated. A panel of bioassays was used to assess the combined toxic effects from these DBP mixtures. 

The results show that the formation of these DBPs to a large extent was specific to each water treatment plant and that local conditions influenced DBP formation, based on e.g., the abundance of organic material with certain chemical structures, bromide and disinfection procedure and agent (chlorine or chloramine). The DBPs were detected in both chlorinated and chloraminated water and in all tap water samples, demonstrating that they are part of human exposure. The number of DBP formulae decreased and the DBP composition changed between drinking water treatment and consumer taps, suggesting that DBP exposure to consumers is not necessarily resembling measurements at the treatment plants. Evaluation of new treatment techniques showed that suspended ion exchange and ozonation have potential to decrease the formation and toxic effects of DBPs and that the removal of organic matter can influence qualitative aspects of DBP formation, such as the proportions of chlorine-containing (less toxic) versus bromine-containing (more toxic) DBPs. Through increased knowledge about the role and relevance of non-volatile DBPs, this work can contribute to future monitoring and actions to reduce the health risks associated with DBPs in chlorinated or chloraminated drinking water. 

Abstract [sv]

Desinfektionsbiprodukter (DBP:s) är potentiellt giftiga ämnen som bildas när dricksvatten renas med desinfektionsmedel såsom hypoklorit eller monokloramin. En stor del av exponeringen är ännu okänd och hittills kända DBP:s kan inte förklara de hälsorisker som förknippats med klorerat dricksvatten i epidemiologiska studier. I avhandlingen undersöks en relativt okänd fraktion av DBP:s som utgörs av icke-flyktiga, klor/brom-innehållande ämnen. Målen var att undersöka hur dessa DBP:s varierar mellan olika vattenverk, om de förekommer hos konsumenter och hur nya vattenreningstekniker kan minska dess bildandning och relaterad toxicitet. För att mäta okända DBP:s användes ultrahögupplöst masspektrometri (Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS)), med vilken massan hos molekyler kan bestämmas så exakt att atomsammansättningen för enskilda DBP:s kan räknas ut. En serie effektbaserade metoder som bygger på biologiska testsystem användes för att mäta kombinerade toxiska effekter från de studerade biprodukterna. 

Resultaten visar att största delen av bildade DBP:s var unik för varje vattenverk och att lokala förutsättningar påverkar vilka DBP:s som bildas, till exempel om det finns organiskt material med särskilda kemiska strukturer, bromid eller vilket desinfektionsmedel (klor eller kloramin) som används. De studerade biprodukterna detekterades både i klorerat och kloraminerat dricksvatten och i samtliga kranvatten, vilket innebär att de bidrar till konsumenters exponering. Antalet detekterade DBP:s minskade och sammansättningen ändrades mellan vattenverk och konsument, vilket innebär att DBP exponeringen hos konsumenter inte är densamma som mäts på vattenverken. En utvärdering av nya reningstekniker visade att suspenderat jonbyte och ozonering har potential att minska bildning och relaterad toxisk effekt från DBP:s och att borttagning av organiskt material kan påverka kvalitativa aspekter av DBP bildning, såsom proportionerna av klorerade (mindre toxiska) och bromerade (mer toxiska) DBP:s. Genom ökad insikt om icke-flyktiga DBP:s roll och relevans kan detta arbete bidra till att förbättra framtida uppföljning och insatser för att minska hälsorisker kopplade till DBP:s i klorerat eller kloraminerat dricksvatten.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2021. p. 65
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Sciences, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 805
Keywords
Water treatment technologies, chemical disinfection, FT-ICR MS, bioassays, Vattenreningstekniker, klor, kloramin, FT-ICR MS, effektbaserad analys
National Category
Environmental Sciences Water Treatment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-173312 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-173312 (DOI)9789179296940 (ISBN)
Public defence
2021-03-12, TEMCAS, T-buidling and online via Zoom., Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Note

Additional funding agencies: Svenskt Vatten Utveckling, Norrvatten, and Stockholm Vatten och Avfall.

Available from: 2021-02-15 Created: 2021-02-15 Last updated: 2021-02-17Bibliographically approved

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Andersson, AnnaKylin, HenrikBastviken, David

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