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Effects of monetary investment, payback time and firm characteristics on electricity saving in energy-intensive industry
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
2019 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 240, p. 499-512Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Our study looked at the extent to which firm characteristics such as total firm capital affect electricity saving in energy-intensive industry in Sweden from 2007 to 2015. Specifically, the most influential variables for systematic variation in electricity saving in the energy-intensive companies participating in Sweden’s voluntary programme for improving energy efficiency in energy-intensive industry (the PFE) were studied by analysing monetary investment, payback time and firm characteristics. Monetary investment and payback time influenced electricity savings during the PFE more than firm characteristics, with monetary investment being most influential. Nevertheless, the total systematic variation in firm characteristics may account for ∼16% of the systematic variation in electricity saving, where ∼74% (32 of 43) of the studied firm characteristics seemed to merit further investigation and where ∼49% (21 of 43) of firm characteristics appeared most influential. The most influential firm characteristics were total firm capital, stock turnover ratio, machinery, short-term liabilities per turnover ratio and goodwill. The overall results showed that firm characteristics can influence a firm’s energy-saving activities and indicated a tendency for more energy savings in companies that were financially weaker or had done less work to improve energy efficiency prior to the PFE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aldring og helse, 2019. Vol. 240, p. 499-512
Keywords [en]
Energy efficiency, Energy saving, Energy intensive industry, Energy management, Firm characteristics, Voluntary agreement
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156280DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.02.060ISI: 000468714300036OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-156280DiVA, id: diva2:1303906
Note

Funding agencies:  Swedish Energy Agency

Available from: 2019-04-11 Created: 2019-04-11 Last updated: 2020-04-01
In thesis
1.
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2. Energy Management for Improved Energy Efficiency in the Pulp and Paper Industry: Success Factors for Strengthening Drivers and Overcoming Barriers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Management for Improved Energy Efficiency in the Pulp and Paper Industry: Success Factors for Strengthening Drivers and Overcoming Barriers
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Industrial energy efficiency improves the profit and competitive advantage of companies. The pulp and paper industry (PPI)being one of the five most energy-intensive industries uses 5.6% of global industrial energy, according to the InternationalEnergy Agency. It is one of the key sectors that is faced with the challenge of improving energy efficiency (EE). The PPI isnot less important in Sweden where it uses approximately 52% of the total industrial energy, employing more than 20000people and where improvement of the energy end-use by 1% corresponds to estimated savings of approximately 218 MSEKannually. Energy management (EnM) is a means for improving EE. However, despite research showing the possibility forannual improvement of the energy end-use by 5.5-19.4% by technical measures, EnM is not always used to its full potentialor often hardly implemented, resulting in an EE gap, i.e. the difference between the theoretical practically and cost-effectivelyachievable EE and actual EE. Why then does this EE gap exist? What are the drivers for and barriers to practicing EnM to itsfull potential and thus improving energy efficiency? What are the success factors for encouraging the drivers and overcomingthe barriers? What practical recommendations can be made that could lead to the improvement of energy efficiency? Afterextracting information from historical and current information using tools from multivariate data analysis (MDA), this PhDdissertation presents new knowledge that intends to contribute to overcome the challenges of improving energy efficiency inthe PPI. Specifically, international research primarily addressing EnM in the PPI showed that EnM in the PPI is perceived asEnM via technology, despite that EnM contains other aspects than EnM via technology, e.g. proactive EnM practices. Thisresult indicates the presence of a knowledge-gap on how to deploy EnM in the PPI. Studies on the PPI in Sweden showeddifferent EnM practices among the individual types of mills, i.e. pulp mills, paper mills and integrated-pulp and paper mills.Integrated mills seemed to measure the energy-related performance more than pulp mills and paper mills. However, the resultsalso suggested that the Swedish PPI worked continuously and regularly with EnM. Further, aside from the top ranked perceiveddrivers being economical and the barriers being organizational, knowledge related drivers and barriers were amongst the mostimportant. The results also showed that commonly only selected employees were trained in EnM, which indicated thatcommunication between the trained employees and operations personnel as well as the absorptive capacity for energy issuescould potentially be improved. Additionally, research showed that by using MDA, previously unstudied and unidentifiedconnections could be discovered. Namely, MDA showed that during the ten-year voluntary agreement policy program knownas PFE (Program for improved electricity efficiency in energy-intensive industry), less financially stable and less experiencedwith EnM companies tended to save electricity more than the more financially stable and more EnM experienced companies.Altogether, the success factors for EnM for improving energy efficiency could be summarized in the versatile 4M memorytool - The “4M for energy efficiency”: mind, measure, monitor and manage. The “4M for energy efficiency” suggests that allthe four “Ms” should be practiced simultaneously in order to maximize the achievement of goals of EnM.

Abstract [sv]

Industriell energieffektivitet behöver förbättras för att förbättra det årliga resutatet och för att stärka konkurrenskraften i företag. Massa- och pappersindustrin (MoP) är en av de fem mest energiintensiva industrierna med en andel på 5.6% av den globala energianvändningen, enligt IEA (Internationella Energimyndigheten), vilket gör branschen till en nyckelsektor vad gäller förbättrad energieffektivitet. MoP är inte mindre viktigt i Sverige där användningen omfattar ungefär 52% av den totala industriella energianvändningen, antal anställda är mer än 20000 och där en minskning av den årliga energianvändningen med 1% motsvarar uppskattade besparingar på ungefär 218 MSEK årligen. Energiledning (EL) är ett sätt att förbättra energieffektiviteten (EE). Emellertid tillämpas inte energiledning fullt ut och ibland inte alls, även om forskning visar på möjligheterna att minska energianvändningen med 5,5 – 19,4 % årligen. Detta leder till ett så kallat energieffektivitetsgap – skillnaden mellan teoretisk energieffektivitet som kan uppnås praktiskt och är kostnadseffektiv, och nuvarande energieffektivitet. Varför existerar då detta energieffektivitetsgap? Vad är drivkrafterna och vilka är hindren för att använda energiledning fullt ut, och på så sätt förbättra energieffektiviteten? Vad är framgångsfaktorerna för att uppmuntra / förstärka drifkrafter och överbrygga /minska hindren? Vilka praktiska rekommendationer kan göras som skulle kunna leda till förbättrad energieffektivitet? Information som har extraherats från historisk och nuvarande tillgänglig data har bland annat studerats med hjälp av multivariat data analys (MDA). Denna doktorsavhandling syftar till att presentera ny kunskap i syfte att bidra till att förbättra energieffektiviteten i MoP. Den internationella forskningen som fokuserat på EL i MoP har som utgångspunkt att detta främst sker via teknik, trots att EL också innebär andra aspekter än EL via teknik, t.ex. EL via proaktiv användning av tekniken. Detta resultat indikerar existerandet av ett kunskaps-gap gällande EL i MoP. Studier med fokus på MoP i Sverige har påvisat skillander mellan massabruk, pappersbruk och integrerade bruk, dvs. massa- och pappersbruk. Integrerade bruk verkar utföra fler mätningar på energiprestanda än massa- och pappersbruk. Emellertid visar resultat också på att svenska MoP arbetar regelbundet och kontinuerligt med EL. Utöver de topprankade upplevda drivkrafterna som var ekonomirelaterade och hindren som var organisationsrelaterade, så var de kunskapsrelaterade drivkrafterna och hindren rankade som de mest viktiga. Den höga rankningen av kunskapsrelaterade drivkrafter och hinder, tillsammans med resultat att oftast bara några få utvalda anställda utbildas inom EL, indikerar att komunikationen mellan den anställda som blivit utvald för utbildning och anställda som arbetar direkt inom produktionen, t.ex. operatörer, tillsammans med absorptiv kapacitet för EL skulle kunna förbättras. Dessutom, visar forskningen att användning av MDA framgångsrikt tydligare kan identifiera ej tidigare studerade och identifierade relationer mellan faktorer som påverkar energianvändningen, t.ex. att företag med mindre bra ekonomi och med mindre erfarenhet av EL tenderade att spara mer el än de andra företag som också deltog i det frivilliga avtalet PFE (Programmet för eleffektivisering i energiintensiv industri). Framgångsfaktorer för EL för att förbätra energieffektivitet, kan summeras i en modell, – ”4M för energieffektivitet”: Mind - tänk på (var medveten), Measure – mäta och åtgärda, Monitor - övervaka, Manage - styra/förvalta. Med ”4M för energieffektivitet” som utgångspunkt föreslås att alla fyra aspekterna genomförs samtidigt, för att energiledning ska ge bästa möjliga förbättring av resultat.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019. p. 147
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1981
Keywords
energy management, barriers, drivers, energy efficiency, pulp and paper industry, industry, energiledning, drivkrafter, hinder, framgångsfaktorer, energieffektivitet, SEC, specifik energi, industri, massa, papper, energiintensiv, tillverkning
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-164913 (URN)9789176851036 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-05-29, ACAS, A Building, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2020-04-23 Created: 2020-04-01 Last updated: 2020-04-23Bibliographically approved

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Lawrence, AkvileKarlsson, MagnusNehler, ThereseThollander, Patrik

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