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High-power impulse magnetron sputter deposition of TiBx thin films: Effects of pressure and growth temperature
Messiah Coll, PA 17055 USA.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
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2019 (English)In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 169, article id UNSP 108884Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Titanium boride, TiBx thin films are grown in pure Ar discharges by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) from a compound TiB2 target Film compositions are determined by time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry as a function of deposition temperature (T-s = 25-900 degrees C) and Ar pressure (p(Ar) = 0.67-2.67 Pa, 5-20 mTorr). For reference, films are also grown by direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS) under similar conditions. The HiPIMS waveform, average target power P-T, and resulting film compositions are strongly dependent not only on P-Ar, but also on T-s. At high pressures the effect of varying T-s on P-T is minimal, while at lower P-Ar the effect of T-s is more pronounced, due to substrate-temperature-induced gas rarefaction. Films grown by HiPIMS at 0.67 Pa are understoichiometric, with B/Ti = 1.4-1.5, while at 2.67 Pa, B/Ti decreases from 2.4 to 1.4 as T-s increases from 25 to 900 degrees C. dcMS-deposited films are overstoichiometric (B/Ti similar or equal to 3) when grown at low pressures, and near-stoichiometric (B/Ti similar or equal to r 1.9-2.2) for higher P-Ar. All experimental results are explained by differences in the ionization potentials of sputtered Ti and B atoms, together with P-Ar- and T-s-dependent gas-phase scattering.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD , 2019. Vol. 169, article id UNSP 108884
Keywords [en]
Titanium diboride; HiPIMS; Ionization; Gas phase transport; Stoichiometry
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-162331DOI: 10.1016/j.vacuum.2019.108884ISI: 000494887000024OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-162331DiVA, id: diva2:1374072
Note

Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg (KAW) FoundationKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation [KAW 2015.0043]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research [RIF14-0053]; VR-RFI [2017-00646_9]

Available from: 2019-11-28 Created: 2019-11-28 Last updated: 2020-02-27

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