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Strong long-term interactive effects of warming and enhanced nitrogen and sulphur deposition on the abundance of active methanogens in a boreal oligotrophic mire
Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology, Infection and Inflammation. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
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2019 (English)In: Mires and Peat, ISSN 1819-754X, E-ISSN 1819-754X, Vol. 24, p. 1-14, article id 29Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Peatlands play a key role in the carbon cycle by being a considerable source of atmospheric methane. Thus, an understanding of the microbial production of methane is important in relation to environmental changes of peatlands. We applied real-time PCR on the mcrA gene and transcript to investigate the peat methanogen community response to the combined effect of 18 years of simulated warming and deposition of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) at a boreal oligotrophic mire in Sweden. The long-term effects of the experimental treatments on the methanogens was highly dependent on interactions between the treatment factors Enhanced N deposition amplified the effect of warming, resulting in a further increase of the abundance of active methanogens. The effect of the perturbations was modulated by the depth horizon, with the strongest effect at the water level, where the interaction between enhanced N and S deposition, and warming, resulted in an increase of active methanogens. These results indicate that increasing average temperatures and simultaneously higher N deposition rates will substantially increase the methanogenic activity in northern ombrotrophic peatlands. These findings strongly highlight the importance of accounting for any possible interactive perturbation effects when investigating the response of peat methanogens to environmental change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dundee, United Kingdom: Mires and Peat , 2019. Vol. 24, p. 1-14, article id 29
Keywords [en]
field experiment; mcrA gene and transcript; nitrogen; real-time PCR; warming
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-162895DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2019.OMB.398ISI: 000500515100007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-162895DiVA, id: diva2:1394679
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council FORMASSwedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council Formas [2007-666]; Swedish Research Council (VR)Swedish Research Council [621-2011-4901]

Available from: 2020-01-02 Created: 2020-02-19 Last updated: 2020-02-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Microbial Communities in Boreal Peatlands: Responses to Climate Change and Atmospheric Nitrogen and Sulfur Depositions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microbial Communities in Boreal Peatlands: Responses to Climate Change and Atmospheric Nitrogen and Sulfur Depositions
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Myrmarker har en stor roll i regleringen av den globala kolbalansen och koncentrationerna av koldioxid och metan i atmosfären, vilket gör dem till speciellt viktiga ekosystem ur ett klimatförandringsperspektiv. Förändringar av myrmarker genom naturlig utveckling eller antropogen påverkan kan därför få långtgående störningar av myrars klimatreglerande funktion. Mikroorganismer har en avgörande roll i biogeokemiska processer genom att t ex bryta ned organisk material i mark och därmed styra kolets kretslopp. För att förstå hur myrsystemen reagerar på störningar är det därför väsentligt att veta hur mikroorganismsamhällena reagerar genom förändringar i sammansättning och biogeokemisk aktivitet. Målet för studierna, som ligger till grund för denna avhandling, var att undersöka hur mikroorganismsamhällen i myrar reagerar på uppvärmning genom klimatförändring och ökade kväve- (N) och svavel- (S) halter i nederbörd. High through-put sekvensering användes för att studera taxonomiska och funktionella egenskaper hos mikroorganismerna i myrar och quantative PCR användes för att mer specifikt studera de metanbildande arkeorna. Två fältkampanjer vardera omfattande tre ombrotrofa myrar med olika klimatförhållanden och olika mängder N och S inederbörden användes för att undersöka lokala och storskaliga effekter på myrars mikrobiella samhällen. Resultaten visade att latudinell variation i geoklimatologiska förhållanden (temperatur ochnederbördsmängd) och deposition av näringsämnen hade en påverkan på sammansättningen av de mikrobiella samhällena och aktiva metanbildare förr än variationen i den kemiska miljön inom varje specifik myr. Myrväxtsamhällenas sammansättning för en specifik myr visades sig i stor utsträckning styra sammansättningen av motsvarande mikrobiella samhälle i torvprofilen. Detta framgick klart av i en analys av samexisterande nätverk av mikroorganismsamhällen och motsvarande växtsamhällen i en studie av tre geografiskt skilda myrar med olika kvävedeposition. Effekterna av klimatförändring och nederbörd med olika mängder av N och S studerades mer specifikt genom att analysera de mikrobiellasamhällena i  ett långliggande (18 år) försök. Påverkan av var och en av dessa manipulationer antingen förstärktes eller minskades, när de förekom i kombinationer. Ökad kvävedeposition var den faktor som hade starkast effekt. De långvariga störningarna medförde stora förändringar i den mikrobiella taxonomin inom samhällena. Detta återspeglades dock inte i den fysiologiska kapaciteten, vilket visar att det finns en stark buffring i myrarnas mikrobiella funktion. Detta tyder på att framtida utveckling av myrar i relation till olika störningar sannolikt inte kommer att påverka myrarnas roll för kolbalans och växthusgasutbyte med atmosfären.

Abstract [en]

Peatlands play a substantial role in regulating the global carbon balance and concentrations of the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4 in the atmosphere, and are thus of utmost importance from a climate change perspective. Any changes of peatland functions due to natural or anthropogenic perturbations may result in changes in these ecosystem services. Soil microbial communities are essential drivers of biogeochemical processes, including the carbon cycle. In order to fully understand the effect of environmental perturbations on peatland functions, it is essential to understand how microbial communities are affected. The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to investigate the responses of the peat microbial communities to climate change and increased precipitation of nitrogen(N) and sulfur (S) compounds. High-throughput sequencing approaches were used to investigate the taxonomic and functional composition of microbial communities, and quantitative PCR was used to specifically target the methanogen community. Two field studies including three ombrotrophic peatlands each that differed in climatological conditions and atmospheric N and S depositions, were used to investigate and compare the effect of large- and local-scale environmental conditions on microbial communities. The results show that the variation in geo-climatological (temperature and precipitation) and atmospheric deposition conditions along the latitudinal gradient modulate the peat microbial community composition and the abundance of active methanogens to a greater extent thansite-related microhabitats. Furthermore, a tight coupling between the plant community composition of a site and the composition of its microbial community was observed, and was found to be mainly driven by plants rather than microorganisms. These co-occurrence networks are strongly affected by seasonal climate variability and the interactions between species in colder areas are more sensitive to climate change. The long-term effects of warming and increased N and S depositions on the peat microbial communities were further investigated using an 18-year in-situ peatland experiment simulating these perturbations. The impacts of each of these perturbations on the microbial community were found to either multiply or counteract one another, with enhanced N deposition being the most important factor. While the long-term perturbations resulted in a substantial shift in the taxonomic composition of microbial communities, only minor changes occurred in genome-encoded functional traits, indicating a functional redundancy. This could act as a buffer maintaining ecosystem functioning when challenged by multiple stressors, and could limit future changes in greenhouse gases and carbonexchange.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017. p. 60
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Sciences, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 715
Keywords
Microbial communities, methanogens, plant communities, peatland, temperature, nitrogen, long-term, field experiment, high-throughput sequencing, Microbiella samhällen, metanogener, växtsamhällen, myrar, torv, temperatur, kväve, långtid, fältexperiment, high-throughput-sekvensering
National Category
Physical Geography Water Engineering Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137487 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-137487 (DOI)9789176855331 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-06-09, TEMCAS, hus T, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-05-17 Created: 2017-05-17 Last updated: 2020-02-20Bibliographically approved

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