liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Energy Management for Improved Energy Efficiency in the Pulp and Paper Industry: Success Factors for Strengthening Drivers and Overcoming Barriers
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Industrial energy efficiency improves the profit and competitive advantage of companies. The pulp and paper industry (PPI)being one of the five most energy-intensive industries uses 5.6% of global industrial energy, according to the InternationalEnergy Agency. It is one of the key sectors that is faced with the challenge of improving energy efficiency (EE). The PPI isnot less important in Sweden where it uses approximately 52% of the total industrial energy, employing more than 20000people and where improvement of the energy end-use by 1% corresponds to estimated savings of approximately 218 MSEKannually. Energy management (EnM) is a means for improving EE. However, despite research showing the possibility forannual improvement of the energy end-use by 5.5-19.4% by technical measures, EnM is not always used to its full potentialor often hardly implemented, resulting in an EE gap, i.e. the difference between the theoretical practically and cost-effectivelyachievable EE and actual EE. Why then does this EE gap exist? What are the drivers for and barriers to practicing EnM to itsfull potential and thus improving energy efficiency? What are the success factors for encouraging the drivers and overcomingthe barriers? What practical recommendations can be made that could lead to the improvement of energy efficiency? Afterextracting information from historical and current information using tools from multivariate data analysis (MDA), this PhDdissertation presents new knowledge that intends to contribute to overcome the challenges of improving energy efficiency inthe PPI. Specifically, international research primarily addressing EnM in the PPI showed that EnM in the PPI is perceived asEnM via technology, despite that EnM contains other aspects than EnM via technology, e.g. proactive EnM practices. Thisresult indicates the presence of a knowledge-gap on how to deploy EnM in the PPI. Studies on the PPI in Sweden showeddifferent EnM practices among the individual types of mills, i.e. pulp mills, paper mills and integrated-pulp and paper mills.Integrated mills seemed to measure the energy-related performance more than pulp mills and paper mills. However, the resultsalso suggested that the Swedish PPI worked continuously and regularly with EnM. Further, aside from the top ranked perceiveddrivers being economical and the barriers being organizational, knowledge related drivers and barriers were amongst the mostimportant. The results also showed that commonly only selected employees were trained in EnM, which indicated thatcommunication between the trained employees and operations personnel as well as the absorptive capacity for energy issuescould potentially be improved. Additionally, research showed that by using MDA, previously unstudied and unidentifiedconnections could be discovered. Namely, MDA showed that during the ten-year voluntary agreement policy program knownas PFE (Program for improved electricity efficiency in energy-intensive industry), less financially stable and less experiencedwith EnM companies tended to save electricity more than the more financially stable and more EnM experienced companies.Altogether, the success factors for EnM for improving energy efficiency could be summarized in the versatile 4M memorytool - The “4M for energy efficiency”: mind, measure, monitor and manage. The “4M for energy efficiency” suggests that allthe four “Ms” should be practiced simultaneously in order to maximize the achievement of goals of EnM.

Abstract [sv]

Industriell energieffektivitet behöver förbättras för att förbättra det årliga resutatet och för att stärka konkurrenskraften i företag. Massa- och pappersindustrin (MoP) är en av de fem mest energiintensiva industrierna med en andel på 5.6% av den globala energianvändningen, enligt IEA (Internationella Energimyndigheten), vilket gör branschen till en nyckelsektor vad gäller förbättrad energieffektivitet. MoP är inte mindre viktigt i Sverige där användningen omfattar ungefär 52% av den totala industriella energianvändningen, antal anställda är mer än 20000 och där en minskning av den årliga energianvändningen med 1% motsvarar uppskattade besparingar på ungefär 218 MSEK årligen. Energiledning (EL) är ett sätt att förbättra energieffektiviteten (EE). Emellertid tillämpas inte energiledning fullt ut och ibland inte alls, även om forskning visar på möjligheterna att minska energianvändningen med 5,5 – 19,4 % årligen. Detta leder till ett så kallat energieffektivitetsgap – skillnaden mellan teoretisk energieffektivitet som kan uppnås praktiskt och är kostnadseffektiv, och nuvarande energieffektivitet. Varför existerar då detta energieffektivitetsgap? Vad är drivkrafterna och vilka är hindren för att använda energiledning fullt ut, och på så sätt förbättra energieffektiviteten? Vad är framgångsfaktorerna för att uppmuntra / förstärka drifkrafter och överbrygga /minska hindren? Vilka praktiska rekommendationer kan göras som skulle kunna leda till förbättrad energieffektivitet? Information som har extraherats från historisk och nuvarande tillgänglig data har bland annat studerats med hjälp av multivariat data analys (MDA). Denna doktorsavhandling syftar till att presentera ny kunskap i syfte att bidra till att förbättra energieffektiviteten i MoP. Den internationella forskningen som fokuserat på EL i MoP har som utgångspunkt att detta främst sker via teknik, trots att EL också innebär andra aspekter än EL via teknik, t.ex. EL via proaktiv användning av tekniken. Detta resultat indikerar existerandet av ett kunskaps-gap gällande EL i MoP. Studier med fokus på MoP i Sverige har påvisat skillander mellan massabruk, pappersbruk och integrerade bruk, dvs. massa- och pappersbruk. Integrerade bruk verkar utföra fler mätningar på energiprestanda än massa- och pappersbruk. Emellertid visar resultat också på att svenska MoP arbetar regelbundet och kontinuerligt med EL. Utöver de topprankade upplevda drivkrafterna som var ekonomirelaterade och hindren som var organisationsrelaterade, så var de kunskapsrelaterade drivkrafterna och hindren rankade som de mest viktiga. Den höga rankningen av kunskapsrelaterade drivkrafter och hinder, tillsammans med resultat att oftast bara några få utvalda anställda utbildas inom EL, indikerar att komunikationen mellan den anställda som blivit utvald för utbildning och anställda som arbetar direkt inom produktionen, t.ex. operatörer, tillsammans med absorptiv kapacitet för EL skulle kunna förbättras. Dessutom, visar forskningen att användning av MDA framgångsrikt tydligare kan identifiera ej tidigare studerade och identifierade relationer mellan faktorer som påverkar energianvändningen, t.ex. att företag med mindre bra ekonomi och med mindre erfarenhet av EL tenderade att spara mer el än de andra företag som också deltog i det frivilliga avtalet PFE (Programmet för eleffektivisering i energiintensiv industri). Framgångsfaktorer för EL för att förbätra energieffektivitet, kan summeras i en modell, – ”4M för energieffektivitet”: Mind - tänk på (var medveten), Measure – mäta och åtgärda, Monitor - övervaka, Manage - styra/förvalta. Med ”4M för energieffektivitet” som utgångspunkt föreslås att alla fyra aspekterna genomförs samtidigt, för att energiledning ska ge bästa möjliga förbättring av resultat.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019. , p. 147
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1981
Keywords [en]
energy management, barriers, drivers, energy efficiency, pulp and paper industry, industry
Keywords [sv]
energiledning, drivkrafter, hinder, framgångsfaktorer, energieffektivitet, SEC, specifik energi, industri, massa, papper, energiintensiv, tillverkning
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-164913ISBN: 9789176851036 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-164913DiVA, id: diva2:1420896
Public defence
2020-05-29, ACAS, A Building, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2020-04-23 Created: 2020-04-01 Last updated: 2020-04-23Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Drivers, Barriers, and Success Factors for Improving Energy Management in the Pulp and Paper Industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drivers, Barriers, and Success Factors for Improving Energy Management in the Pulp and Paper Industry
2018 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 6, article id 1851Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Successful energy management is a way to achieve energy efficiency in the pulp and paper industry (PPI), which is important for assuring energy supply security, for increasing economic competitiveness, and for mitigating greenhouse gases. However, research shows that although energy use within PPI can be reduced by 5.5-19.4% per year, some of this by energy management practices, energy management is not always implemented. Why is this so? What are the barriers to, and drivers of implementation? How can the barriers be overcome? A systematic review of barriers and drivers in energy management in the PPI within peer-reviewed scientific articles suggests that the world-wide events that affect energy supply, volatility, and use seemingly also affect the number and frequency of research articles on energy management in the PPI. The perception of energy management in the PPI seems to be dominated by the understanding that it can mostly be achieved through technological improvements aiming to improve energy efficiency. The main driver of energy management was shown to be economic conditions: high and unstable energy prices, followed by drivers such as the need to remain internationally competitive, collaboration and energy management systems. Meanwhile, examples of the most important barriers are technical risks, lack of access to capital, lack of time and other priorities, and slim organization. The success factors for enhancing drivers and overcoming barriers were continuous energy accounting, energy-related collaboration, energy-efficiency programmes, and benchmarking. Altogether, success factors for energy management for improved energy efficiency could be summarized in the 4M frameworkthe 4M for energy efficiency: mind, measure, monitor, and managethat could be used as the energy management memory-tool that could lead to improved energy efficiency in other sectors as well.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
Keywords
energy management; energy efficiency; pulp and paper industry; barriers; drivers; ISO 50001; success factors
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151523 (URN)10.3390/su10061851 (DOI)000436570100163 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency [2015-002143]; Division of Energy Systems in the Department of Management and Engineering at Linkoping University

Available from: 2018-09-24 Created: 2018-09-24 Last updated: 2020-04-01
2. Effects of firm characteristics and energy management for improving energy efficiency in the pulp and paper industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of firm characteristics and energy management for improving energy efficiency in the pulp and paper industry
2018 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 153, p. 825-835Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Swedish pulp and paper industry (PPI) must increase energy efficiency to remain competitive on the global market, which has experienced entries from countries with cheaper energy and raw material supplies. Interactions among variables for energy use, production, energy management, electricity price and firm characteristics (FC), in different types of mills, i.e., pulp, paper and integrated mills, in Sweden from 2006 to 2015 indicate that correlations among the studied variables were different in different types of mills. This difference between types of mills seemed to originate partly from varying accessibility to production residue that could be used for energy. For all types of mills, variation of electricity prices did not correlate significantly with energy efficiency during the study period. The studied FC were firms age, number of employees, number of companies in company group, net sales and profit for the year. Energy efficiency was more affected by the variables characterizing energy and production compared to the variables representing FC. This study also suggested presence of possible discrepancies between FC that were perceived as barriers to energy management towards energy efficiency, according to previous studies, and what was shown by the data combining variables representing energy use, production and FC. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018
Keywords
Energy efficiency; Specific energy; Pulp and paper industry; Firm characteristics; Energy intensive industry; Energy management
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150880 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2018.04.092 (DOI)000436651100074 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

Available from: 2018-09-06 Created: 2018-09-06 Last updated: 2020-04-01
3. Drivers, barriers and success factors for energy management in the Swedish pulp and paper industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drivers, barriers and success factors for energy management in the Swedish pulp and paper industry
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 223, p. 67-82Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research has revealed the existence of an energy-efficiency gap – the difference between optimal and actual energy end-use, suggesting that energy efficiency can be improved. Energy management (EnM) is a means for improving industrial energy efficiency. However, due to various barriers, the full potential of EnM is not realised. Several studies have addressed drivers and barriers to energy efficiency but few to EnM. This study aims to identify EnM practices, the most important perceived drivers and barriers for EnM, and relations among them in the energy-intensive Swedish pulp and paper industry (PPI), which has the longest experience internationally of practising EnM systems, and has worked according to the standards since 2004. Our results show that, altogether, the PPI works regularly and continuously with EnM, with a clear division of responsibilities. The highest maturity for EnM practices was for energy policy, followed by organization, investments, and performance measurement. The study also shows that communication between middle management and operations personnel has potential for improvement. The most important categories of drivers were economic, whereas for barriers they were organizational. Nevertheless, knowledge-related barriers and drivers were amongst the most important, suggesting that the absorptive capacity for energy issues could be improved.

Keywords
Barriers, Drivers, Success factors, Energy management, Energy efficiency, Pulp and paper industry
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156271 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.03.143 (DOI)000466253100008 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Energy Agency [2015-002143]; Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Carbonstruct research project [802-0082-17]

Available from: 2019-04-10 Created: 2019-04-10 Last updated: 2020-04-01
4. Effects of monetary investment, payback time and firm characteristics on electricity saving in energy-intensive industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of monetary investment, payback time and firm characteristics on electricity saving in energy-intensive industry
2019 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 240, p. 499-512Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Our study looked at the extent to which firm characteristics such as total firm capital affect electricity saving in energy-intensive industry in Sweden from 2007 to 2015. Specifically, the most influential variables for systematic variation in electricity saving in the energy-intensive companies participating in Sweden’s voluntary programme for improving energy efficiency in energy-intensive industry (the PFE) were studied by analysing monetary investment, payback time and firm characteristics. Monetary investment and payback time influenced electricity savings during the PFE more than firm characteristics, with monetary investment being most influential. Nevertheless, the total systematic variation in firm characteristics may account for ∼16% of the systematic variation in electricity saving, where ∼74% (32 of 43) of the studied firm characteristics seemed to merit further investigation and where ∼49% (21 of 43) of firm characteristics appeared most influential. The most influential firm characteristics were total firm capital, stock turnover ratio, machinery, short-term liabilities per turnover ratio and goodwill. The overall results showed that firm characteristics can influence a firm’s energy-saving activities and indicated a tendency for more energy savings in companies that were financially weaker or had done less work to improve energy efficiency prior to the PFE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aldring og helse, 2019
Keywords
Energy efficiency, Energy saving, Energy intensive industry, Energy management, Firm characteristics, Voluntary agreement
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156280 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.02.060 (DOI)000468714300036 ()
Note

Funding agencies:  Swedish Energy Agency

Available from: 2019-04-11 Created: 2019-04-11 Last updated: 2020-04-01
5. Specific Energy Consumption/Use (SEC) in Energy Management for Improving Energy Efficiency in Industry: Meaning, Usage and Differences
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Specific Energy Consumption/Use (SEC) in Energy Management for Improving Energy Efficiency in Industry: Meaning, Usage and Differences
2019 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 247Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although several research studies have adopted specific energy consumption (SEC) as an indicator of the progress of improved energy efficiency, publications are scarce on critical assessments when using SEC. Given the increasing importance of monitoring improved industrial energy efficiency and the rising popularity of SEC as an energy key performance indicator (e-KPI), an in-depth analysis and problematization on the pros and cons of using SEC would appear to be needed. The aim of this article is to analyse SEC critically in relation to industrial energy efficiency. By using SEC in the pulp and paper industry as an example, the results of this exploratory study show that although SEC is often used as an e-KPI in industry, the comparison is not always straightforward. Challenges emanate from a lack of information about how SEC is calculated. It is likely that SEC is an optimal e-KPI within the same study, when all deployed SECs are calculated in the same way, and with the same underlying assumptions. However, before comparing SEC with other studies, it is recommended that the assumptions on which calculations are based should be scrutinized in order to ensure the validity of the comparisons. The paper remains an important contribution in addition to the available handbooks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
specific energy consumption; specific energy use; specific energy; SEC; energy management; energy efficiency; industry; energy use; manufacturing
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155606 (URN)10.3390/en12020247 (DOI)000459743700048 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency [40537-1]; Swedish Environmental Protection Agency [802-0082-17]; Division of Energy Systems at the Department of Management and Engineering, Linkoping University

Available from: 2019-03-21 Created: 2019-03-21 Last updated: 2020-04-01

Open Access in DiVA

No full text in DiVA
Order online >>

Authority records BETA

Lawrence, Akvile

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Lawrence, Akvile
By organisation
Energy SystemsFaculty of Science & Engineering
Energy Systems

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 127 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf