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Adaptive behaviour in traffic: An individual road user perspective
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5769-7193
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Road-user adaptation is a prerequisite for traffic to run smoothly. By adaptation, the road user aims to ensure a feeling of comfort according to his or her present state and capability. In this thesis, adaptive behaviour of car drivers and cyclists in response to different factors is explored, using the individual perspective of the road user. The research focuses on investigating how adaptation in the road traffic environment can be described, and what adaptations road users make in traffic in response to static and dynamic infrastructure, additional tasks and other road users.

One simulator study and three field studies in real traffic were carried out. The study results implied that the current road-user role and the preconditions for that role, in terms of vehicle and infrastructure, affect adaptive behaviour. The results also showed that in non-complex situations, there is a certain level of visual guidance above which more detailed information does not have any effect on speed adaptation. Detailed information that allows road users to improve their predictions to take action to ensure a feeling of comfort, is however preferred. Under increased situational demands, vehicle speed can be reduced to maintain the safety margins. It was found that there are individual strategies concerning what degree of complexity for interaction with an additional task is acceptable.

A conceptual model of adaptation in relation to the environment and subjective perceptions of safety and a feeling of comfort is proposed and applied to different traffic situations. For future transport system designs it is advised that adaptive behaviours of road users are supported.

Abstract [sv]

Att trafikanterna anpassar sig är en förutsättning för ett välfungerande vägsystem. Genom anpassning försöker trafikanten säkerställa en känsla av komfort med hänsyn till hans eller hennes nuvarande tillstånd och förmåga. I denna avhandling undersöks bilförares och cyklisters anpassningsbeteende i samband med olika faktorer, utifrån ett individuellt trafikantperspektiv. Forskningen är inriktad på att undersöka hur anpassning i vägtrafikmiljön kan beskrivas, samt vilka anpassningar trafikanter gör i relation till statisk och dynamisk vägutrustning, extrauppgifter och andra trafikanter.

En simulatorstudie och tre fältstudier i verklig trafik har genomförts. Studieresultaten antydde att den roll som trafikanten har för tillfället, samt de förutsättningar som den rollen innebär i form av fordon och infrastruktur, påverkar anpassningsbeteendet. Resultaten visade också att om den visuella ledningen är över en viss nivå har inte mer detaljerad visuell information någon effekt på hastighetsanpassningen i icke-komplexa situationer. Trafikanterna föredrar dock mer detaljerad information om den gör det lättare att bedöma hur trafiksituationen kommer att utvecklas. Om komplexiteten ökar kan fordonshastigheten minskas för att bibehålla tillräckligt stora säkerhetsmarginaler. Hur man interagerar med extrauppgifter är individuellt och beror på vilken svårighetsnivå för interaktion som individen själv upplever är acceptabel.

En konceptuell modell för anpassning föreslås som tar hänsyn till trafikmiljön och trafikantens upplevelse av säkerhet och känsla av komfort. Framtida trafiksystem bör utformas för att stödja trafikanternas anpassningsbeteenden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2020. , p. 68
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Sciences, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 787
Keywords [en]
Adaptation, road-user, comfort zone
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-164952DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-164952ISBN: 9789179298579 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-164952DiVA, id: diva2:1428186
Public defence
2020-06-04, Ada Lovelace, B-building, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2020-05-07 Created: 2020-05-05 Last updated: 2020-05-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The effect of different delineator post configurations on driver speed in night-time traffic: A driving simulator study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of different delineator post configurations on driver speed in night-time traffic: A driving simulator study
2014 (English)In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 72, p. 341-350Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the study was to investigate how different delineator post configurations affect driver speed in night-time traffic. In addition, the potential speed effect of introducing a secondary task was investigated. The study was carried out in a car simulator on a road stretch including straight road sections as well as curves with different radii. Fourteen drivers participated in the study and the results show that absence of delineator posts leads to reduced speed. However, provided that there are delineator posts continuously present along the road, the overall driver speed is basically the same, regardless of the spacing between the delineator posts. The results also imply that to reduce driver speed in curves with small radius, using more compact spacing of posts in these curves as compared to in curves with a larger radius, could be a potential strategy. Additionally, the speed reducing effect of a secondary task was only prevailing where the task was initiated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
Delineator posts; Simulator study; Night-time traffic; Distraction; Driver speed
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112463 (URN)10.1016/j.aap.2014.07.023 (DOI)000343843700035 ()25118126 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-11-28 Created: 2014-11-28 Last updated: 2020-05-06Bibliographically approved
2. Bicyclists adaptation strategies when interacting with text messages in urban environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bicyclists adaptation strategies when interacting with text messages in urban environments
2018 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 377-388Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cyclists use of mobile phones in traffic has typically been studied in controlled experiments. How cyclists adapt their behaviour when they are not limited to a certain set of behaviours has not been investigated to any large extent. The aims of this study are to explore how cyclists adapt when texting and listening to music in a complex urban environment, and if they compensate sufficiently to maintain safe traffic behaviour. Forty-one cyclists participated in a semi-controlled study, using their own bike and smartphone in real traffic. They were equipped with eye tracking glasses and travelled two laps completing a total of 6 km divided into six segments. For one of the laps, the cyclists were requested to listen to music. On three occasions, they received a text message to their phone, which they were supposed to handle as they normally would when cycling. Static minimum required attention measures were used to examine the influence on attention. The results show that listening to music while cycling did not affect workload, speed, SMS interaction or attention. Seven different adaptation behaviours were identified when the cyclists dealt with received text messages. One-fourth of the text messages were replied to while cycling. In general, the cyclists manage to integrate SMS interactions with their cycling behaviour. Nevertheless, there were two occasions when basic attention criteria were violated while texting, which motivate further studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER LONDON LTD, 2018
Keywords
Mobile phone; Bicyclist; Attention; Behavioural adaptation; Text message; Music
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150233 (URN)10.1007/s10111-018-0478-y (DOI)000439906300004 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Stiftelsen Lansforsakringsbolagens Forskningsfond

Available from: 2018-08-22 Created: 2018-08-22 Last updated: 2020-05-06
3. Trade-offs in traffic: does being mainly a car driver or a cyclist affect adaptive behaviour while driving and cycling?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trade-offs in traffic: does being mainly a car driver or a cyclist affect adaptive behaviour while driving and cycling?
2020 (English)In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim Road users, such as cyclists and car drivers, are constantly adapting to each other and to the road infrastructure. This study aimed to investigate what trade-offs can be observed when drivers and cyclists adapt to other road users and to the infrastructure. Methods A semi-controlled study was carried out in an urban traffic environment, where all participants travelled the same route twice, once as a cyclist and once as a car driver. The extended control model was used as an analytical framework to examine how people adapt depending on their main and current road-user role, experiencing different infrastructure and complexity. Results The results revealed possible trade-offs made while adapting, mainly in relation to rule-following. No differences in adaptive behaviour between people who mostly drive and people who mostly cycle were found. The current situational demands influence both the need to adapt and the adaptation carried out. A more complex traffic environment led to increased information intake, measured by glance behaviour.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGEROPEN, 2020
Keywords
Behavioural adaptation; Cyclist; Driver; ECOM; Comfort zone; Complexity
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-165002 (URN)10.1186/s12544-020-0396-y (DOI)000520478200001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Strategic Vehicle Research and Innovation Programme (FFI) - Swedish state; Strategic Vehicle Research and Innovation Programme (FFI) - Swedish automotive industry

Available from: 2020-04-08 Created: 2020-04-08 Last updated: 2020-05-06

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