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i-MXenes for Energy Storage and Catalysis
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 30, nr 47, artikkel-id 2000894Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

In 2017, a new family of in-plane, chemically-ordered quaternary MAX phases, coined i-MAX, has been reported since 2017. The first i-MAX phase, (Mo2/3Sc1/3)(2)AlC, garnered significant research attention due to the presence of chemically ordered Sc within the Mo-dominated M layer, and the facilitated removal of both Al and Sc upon etching, resulting in 2D i-MXene, Mo1.33C, with ordered divacancies. The i-MXene renders an exceptionally low resistivity of 33.2 mu omega m(-1) and a high volumetric capacitance of approximate to 1150 F cm(-3). This discovery has been followed by the synthesis of, to date, 32 i-MAX phases and 5 i-MXenes, where the latter have shown potential for applications including, but not limited to, energy storage and catalysis. Herein, fundamental investigations of i-MAX phases and i-MXenes, along with their applicability in supercapacitive and catalytic applications, are reviewed. Moreover, recent results on ion intercalation and post-etching treatment of Mo1.33C are presented. The charge storage performance can also be tuned by forming MXene hydrogel and through inert atmosphere annealing, where the latter renders a superior volumetric capacitance of approximate to 1635 F cm(-3). This report demonstrates the potential of the i-MXene family for catalytic and energy storage applications, and highlights novel research directions for further development and successful employment in practical applications.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH , 2020. Vol. 30, nr 47, artikkel-id 2000894
Emneord [en]
catalysis; energy storage; hydrogen evolution reaction; MXenes; supercapacitors
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-166186DOI: 10.1002/adfm.202000894ISI: 000531293500001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-166186DiVA, id: diva2:1437698
Merknad

Funding Agencies|Wenner-Gren Stiftelserna [UPD2017-0171]; Knut and Alice Wallenbergs FoundationKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009 00971]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Vinnova; Swedish Strategy Group for EU-Coordination [2018-02677]

Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-06-09 Laget: 2020-06-09 Sist oppdatert: 2022-10-28
Inngår i avhandling
1. Acoustic Platform for MXene Synthesis and Electrochemical Behaviour of i-MXenes in Aqueous Electrolytes
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Acoustic Platform for MXene Synthesis and Electrochemical Behaviour of i-MXenes in Aqueous Electrolytes
2021 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Climate Change is believed to be the greatest global challenge and on its forefront is the topic of energy. While being of extreme importance, debates over energy have become a normality. The related field of material synthesis for energy storage applications has also been growing, as well as the demand for industrial electrification from renewable sources of energy. Water-based supercapacitors are a type of energy storage devices that can deliver high power densities while maintaining long term cyclability in an environmen-tally friendly media. However, their challenges include maintaining high per-formance in term of energy density, safety, and low cost of electrode manu-facturing. 

MXene is family of two-dimensional transition metal carbides/nitrides that are terminated with H, OH and F groups. The material demonstrates superior physical and chemical properties related to energy applications in compari-son to its 3D parent material, the MAX phase. Since its discovery in 2011, MXene, such as Ti3C2Tz, has been widely investigated in the field of energy storage due to its high conductivity (20,000 S.cm-1) and a volumetric capac-itance that can reach 900 Fcm-3. However, reported synthesis processes for MXene are fraught with hazardous procedures that are time consuming. The first section of this thesis presents a new innovative method for Ti3C2Tz MXene synthesis, in which MXene was synthesized in a few milliseconds with the assistance of 30 MHz frequency surface acoustic waves (SAW) and 0.05M of LiF. The aluminium element in the Ti3AlC2 MAX phase was etched by so called “localized HF”, and the powder was converted to 2D Ti3C2Tz. This method showed resulting MXene comparable to that of previ-ously reported synthesis techniques, as demonstrated by the material’s elec-trochemical performance.  

The second section of the thesis focuses on investigating the electrochemical performance of a comparatively new family of MXene, coined i-MXene, in aqueous electrolyte. i-MXene, reported in 2017, has the chemical formula Mo1.33CTz and is a product of chemical etching of the in-plane chemically ordered (Mo2/3Sc1/3)2AlC i-MAX phase. The Mo1.33CTz was studied in a sul-phuric acid electrolyte. This electrolyte sets a limit for the electrode potential window and capacitance, and therefore, post-synthesis treatment protocols was used to enhance the electrochemical performance. The Mo1.33CTz recorded a volumetric capacitance of 1050 Fcm-3 and1600 Fcm-3 for hydrogel treatment and heat-treated electrodes, respectively. Moreover, mixing Mo1.33CTz with MoS2 and graphene improved both the specific capacitance and the electrode stability even further.  

The electrochemical properties of Mo1.33CTz were thereafter explored in dif-ferent sulfate-based aqueous electrolytes with univalent (Li+, Na+, and K+) and divalent (Mg2+ Mn2+ or Zn2+) cations. Mo1.33CTz exhibited a wider po-tential window without degradation, expanding the previously reported limit in sulphuric acid for both symmetric and asymmetric devices. Lithium chlo-ride gave the best results, being an electrolyte based on a natural salt that has high solubility at room temperature. It presented a large potential window, -1.2 to +0.3V (vs. Ag/AgCl), and a volumetric capacitance of ~800 Fcm−3 at a scan rate of 2 mVs−1. In addition, the performance of a Mo1.33CTz //MnxOn asymmetric device was tested in 5M LiCl electrolyte. The results showed a potential window of 2 V, a volumetric energy density of 58 mWhcm-3, and a 100% columbic efficiency after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles. A cyclic sta-bility is crucial for practical applications, and altogether, the promising re-sults motivate further exploration of i-MXenes for energy storage and be-yond.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2021. s. 52
Serie
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 2183
Emneord
Surface Acoustic Waves, MXene, i-MXene, Supercapacitor
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-180854 (URN)10.3384/9789179290689 (DOI)9789179290672 (ISBN)9789179290689 (ISBN)
Disputas
2021-12-10, Röntgen, F-building, Campus Valla, Linköping, 09:15 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Merknad

ISBN (PDF) saknas i den tryckta versionen och har lagts till i den digitala.

Funding agencies: The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF), Project EM16-0004.

Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-11-05 Laget: 2021-11-05 Sist oppdatert: 2021-12-28bibliografisk kontrollert

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