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Rate of elimination of gamma-hydroxybutyrate from blood determined by analysis of two consecutive samples from apprehended drivers in Norway
Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway.
Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway.
Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway.
Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
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2020 (English)In: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 314, article id 110374Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a common drug of abuse with an elimination half-life of 20-45 min. However, there is some evidence that GHB might exhibit saturation kinetics after ingesting high recreational doses. The aim of this study was to investigate the elimination kinetics of GHB from blood in people apprehended by the police for impaired driving and secondary to describe concentrations in all GHB-positive drivers. Methods: Two consecutive blood samples were taken about 30-40 min apart from N =16 apprehended drivers in Norway. GHB was determined in blood by an Ultra High-Performance Liquid ChromatographyTandem Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method. The changes in GHB between the two consecutive blood samples allowed estimating GHBs elimination half-life, assuming first-order and zero-order elimination kinetics. GHB concentrations are also reported for N =1276 apprehended drivers with GHB in blood. Results: The median time interval between collecting the two blood samples was 36 min (range 20 56 min). The median concentration of GHB in the first blood sample was 56.5 mg/L (range 14.1 142 mg/L) compared with 47.8 mg/L in the second sample (range 9.75 113 mg/L). The median elimination half-life was 103 min (range 21 187 min), and GHBs median zero-order elimination rate constant was 21.0 mg/L/h (range 6.71-45A mg/L/h). Back-calculation to the time of driving resulted in GHB concentrations up to 820 mg/L assuming first-order kinetics and up to 242 ma assuming zeroorder kinetics. In all drivers (N 1276), the median GHB concentration was 73.7 ma and highest was 484 mg/L. Conclusion: The elimination half-life of GHB in blood samples from apprehended drivers was longer than expected compared with results of controlled dosing studies. Zero-order kinetics seems a more appropriate model for GHB when concentrations are back-calculated. and the median elimination rate was 21 mg/L/h. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD , 2020. Vol. 314, article id 110374
Keywords [en]
Apprehended drivers; GHB; Back-calculation; Impairment; Pharmacokinetics
National Category
Forensic Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-170660DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2020.110374ISI: 000573403400006PubMedID: 32604006OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-170660DiVA, id: diva2:1484969
Available from: 2020-10-31 Created: 2020-10-31 Last updated: 2020-11-16

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CiteExportLink to record
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