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A System of Systems Approach for Search and Rescue Missions
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8013-9787
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
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2020 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

System-of-Systems Engineering (SoSE) has become a constantly growing field within product development for complex systems. Systems are becoming more and more connected with other systems and the operational environment in general. This takes the development process to new levels of complexity where high degrees of uncertainties are expected due to ever occurring changes in the operational environment, and other external factors such as politics, economy, and technology. This creates a need of being able to understand the influence of changes early in the development process and to facilitate the systems? perseverance. The focus of the development shifts from fulfilling specific requirements, to being able to meet needs and deliver capabilities over time. Additionally, modeling and simulation for complex systems and System-of-Systems (SoS) becomes a valued alternative to the economically prohibited and almost impossible prototype testing. In consideration of this problem, the presented work introduces a method for both modeling and simulation of a SoS. The method uses ontology with description logic reasoning to derive and narrow down a SoS design space which is further analyzed using Agent Based Simulation (ABS). A Search and Rescue (SAR) scenario is used as a case study to test the method. Measures of Effectiveness (MoE), based on the time it takes to find a rescue subject and the cost of doing so, are used to evaluate the SoS performances. The presented method is envisioned to be used early in the development of complex systems and SoS to increase the overall understanding of them.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics , 2020.
Keywords [en]
Model Based System Engineering, Unified Modeling Language, Web Ontology Language, Extensible Markup Language, Ocean Currents, Helicopters, Air Vehicle, Probability Density Functions, Cyber Physical System
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-175763DOI: 10.2514/6.2020-0455OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-175763DiVA, id: diva2:1555722
Conference
AIAA Scitech 2020 Forum
Available from: 2021-05-19 Created: 2021-05-19 Last updated: 2023-11-02Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. An Ontological and Reasoning Approach to System of Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Ontological and Reasoning Approach to System of Systems
2021 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

System-of-Systems (SoS) are all around us and are becoming more common in today’s highly interconnected world. Systems are connected with other systems and have strong dependencies with their operational environments. This leads to an increased level of complexity and risk during product development. A holistic view, and an SoS perspective, is consequently needed in order to develop an early understanding of the available design spaces for new system solutions. This thesis suggests a method that has been developed for this purpose, and to meet the demand for a more holistic product development. Overall, the method consists of two correlated approaches that show how a design space for SoSs can be generated and later processed with, for example, design space reductions. Search and Rescue (SAR) operations have been used as examples of typical SoSs throughout this work and in the development of the presented method. An architecture framework has been used to introduce a standardized and consistent way of understanding the relationships that exist between needs, capabilities and functions. This approach can consequently be used to generate a design space of functions to be performed to meet the overarching needs of an SoS. The second approach has been based on ontology and description logic reasoning. Ontology has here been used to represent an SoS design space with, for example, available SAR assets and their relationships with the operational environment. An SoS representation in an ontology model introduces additional expressiveness and the design space processing capabilities needed for a holistic design process and product development. Based on these results, this thesis and its suggested method and approaches contribute to holistic product development from an SoS perspective. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2021. p. 56
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Licentiate Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1907
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-175766 (URN)10.3384/lic.diva-175766 (DOI)9789179296353 (ISBN)
Presentation
2021-06-11, Online through Zoom (contact ludvig.knoos.franzen@liu.se) and ACAS, A-building, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Vinnova
Note

Additional funding agencies: Saab Aeronautics.

Available from: 2021-05-19 Created: 2021-05-19 Last updated: 2021-05-24Bibliographically approved
2. A System of Systems View in Early Product Development: An Ontology-Based Approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A System of Systems View in Early Product Development: An Ontology-Based Approach
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The concept of system-of-systems is becoming increasingly common and relevant in many engineering applications. Today’s highly interconnected world entails that more and more systems have dependencies on other systems. This increasing number of interdependencies results in new levels of complexity that must be managed in the early development of new products. Different viewpoints must also be handled to understand the many layers of a system-of-systems and its surrounding context. An ever-changing future results in uncertainty about the operational environment but also other aspects, such as available technologies, which complicates the matter even further. Traditional approaches for early product development can be used to some extent, but the complexity, scale and sheer number of interconnections in system-of-systems require a holistic perspective to obtain an early understanding of the problem, design spaces, and multiple aspects involved. 

This dissertation aims to present a method that has been developed to address the demand for a more holistic system-of-systems view in early product development. Overall, the method consists of four parts that together show how design spaces for system-of-systems can be generated and later processed to find suitable solutions. Search and rescue operations have been used as examples of system-of-systems throughout this work and in the development of the presented method. The first two parts of the method are based on architecture frameworks and ontologies with description logic reasoning capabilities. An architecture framework is here used to break down system-of-system needs into functions to be fulfilled by constituent systems. Ontologies are thereafter used to represent the outcome and the resulting system-of-system design spaces with involved entities and their relationships. Description logic reasoning can subsequently be used to process the available design spaces and suggest suitable system-of-system solutions. The last two parts of the method build upon a concept exploration and estimation approach, together with visual analytics. The approach illustrates how individual system concepts can be estimated from an ontology-represented design space, and how visual analytics can be used to explore different system-of-system viewpoints at an early stage. Based on the outcomes of the presented method, this dissertation contributes a holistic take on early product development from a system-of-systems perspective. 

Abstract [sv]

Konceptet system-av-system blir allt vanligare och relevant i många tekniska tillämpningsområden. Dagens högt sammanlänkade värld innebär att fler och fler system har beroenden med andra system. Detta ökande antal av ömsesidiga beroenden resulterar i nya nivåer av komplexitet som måste hanteras i den tidiga utvecklingen av nya produkter. Olika synsätt måste också hanteras för att förstå de många skikt som ett system-av-system består av och dess omgivande omständigheter. En ständigt föränderlig framtid resulterar i osäkerhet om den operativa miljön men även andra aspekter, såsom tillgängliga teknologier, vilket komplicerar saken ytterligare. Traditionella metoder för tidig produktutveckling kan användas i viss utsträckning, men komplexiteten, skalan och det stora antalet sammankopplingar i system-av-system kräver ett mer holistiskt synsätt för att skapa en tidig förståelse av problemet, designrymden och andra inblandade aspekter.

Denna avhandling syftar till att presentera en metod som har utvecklats för att möta efterfrågan på en mer holistisk system-av-system-vy i tidig produktutveckling. Sammantaget består metoden av fyra delar som tillsammans visar hur designrymder för system-av-system kan genereras och senare bearbetas för att hitta lämpliga lösningar. Sök- och räddningsinsatser har använts som exempel på system-av-system genom hela detta arbete och i utvecklingen av den presenterade metoden. De två första delarna av metoden är baserade på arkitekturramverk och ontologier med beskrivningslogiska resonemangsförmågor. Ett arkitekturramverk används här för att bryta ned system-av-system-behov i funktioner som ska uppfyllas av involverade system. Ontologier används därefter för att representera resultatet och de resulterande system-av-system-designrymderna med involverade entiteter och deras relationer. Beskrivningslogiska resonemang kan sedan användas för att bearbeta de tillgängliga designrymderna och föreslå lämpliga system-av-system-lösningar. De två sista delarna av metoden bygger på en konceptutforsknings och uppskattningsmetod tillsammans med visuell analysteknik. Tillvägagångssättet illustrerar hur individuella systemkoncept kan estimeras från en ontologirepresenterad designrymd, och hur visuell analysteknik kan användas för att utforska olika system-av-system-perspektiv i ett tidigt skede. Baserat på resultaten av den presenterade metoden bidrar denna avhandling med en helhetssyn på tidig produktutveckling utifrån en system-av-system-vy.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2023. p. 94
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 2317
Keywords
System-of-Systems, Systems Engineering, Ontology, Description Logic Reasoning, Design Space Exploration, Aircraft Design, Search and Rescue, Early Product Development
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-193644 (URN)10.3384/9789180751667 (DOI)9789180751650 (ISBN)9789180751667 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-06-02, C3, C-building, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Funding: The research has been performed as part of the System-of-Systems Trade Space Exploration (S2TEP) project which is part of the National Aeronautics Research Programme (NFFP7) funded by the Swedish Agency for Innovation (VINNOVA) and the Swedish Armed Forces. The project has also been done in collaboration with Saab Aeronautics.

Available from: 2023-05-11 Created: 2023-05-11 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
3. Model Fidelity in Mission Scenario Simulations for Systems of Systems: A Case Study of Maritime Search and Rescue
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Model Fidelity in Mission Scenario Simulations for Systems of Systems: A Case Study of Maritime Search and Rescue
2023 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Systems of Systems (SoS) represent a view where individual, independent systems named Constituent System (CS) collaborate to achieve overarching capabilities not attainable by a single CS alone. In cyberphysical systems, CS can be engineered entities like boats or aircraft, when they collaborate in an environment it can be viewed as an SoS. There is a large interest in modeling and simulation of phenomena present at different scales of SoS, which requires choosing appropriate model fidelity and resolution for the study. This thesis delves into the intricacies of modeling and simulation of mission scenarios within SoS, with a keen focus on engineered CS operating in physical environments. At the heart of the thesis lies the concept of model fidelity, examined through philosophical, scientific, and engineering perspectives.

A maritime search and rescue scenario by airborne search assets serves as case study, using Agent Based Simulation (ABS) to explore the Measures of Effectiveness (MoE) of the mission. Through a hierarchical viewpoint it is studied how the model fidelity on Sub-System (SS) level affects its performance and how it aggregates up to performance on the CS level and at last the MoE on SoS level. In the scenarios, manned assets utilize traditional search patterns that is used in present search and rescue operations. Concurrently, autonomous assets employ a belief map search strategy where the map is based on probability density functions underpinned by a Bayesian modeling approach to new observations as the search progresses.

The study shows that increasing the model fidelity at the SS level, particularly by refining the representation of the search sensor, can impact the MoE of the mission at the SoS level. However, this influence shows to be notably scenario-dependent, emphasizing the intricate relationship between model fidelity and system performance. The findings indicate that the relevance of model fidelity is tied to how measures of performance at lower levels aggregate to influence overarching mission outcomes. The thesis concludes by discussing validation and verification of the case study and ties encountered modeling difficulties to resolution and model fidelity aspects. Future work is suggested to be a deeper dive into mission engineering, where the mission itself is viewed as the system of interest, and how it could be combined with modeling and simulation in product development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2023. p. 85
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Licentiate Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1975
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-198925 (URN)10.3384/9789180753944 (DOI)9789180753937 (ISBN)9789180753944 (ISBN)
Presentation
2023-11-17, ACAS, A-building and online via Zoom (contact sofia.schon@liu.se), Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Vinnova, NFFP7/ 2017-04839
Available from: 2023-11-02 Created: 2023-11-02 Last updated: 2023-11-06Bibliographically approved

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Publisher's full texthttps://doi.org/10.2514/6.2020-0455

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Knöös Franzén, LudvigSchön, SofiaPapageorgiou, AthanasiosStaack, IngoÖlvander, JohanKrus, PetterAmadori, KristianJouannet, Christopher

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