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A Breakdown of System of Systems Needs Using Architecture Frameworks, Ontologies and Description Logic Reasoning
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2315-0680
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Overall Design and Survivability, Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
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2021 (English)In: Aerospace, E-ISSN 2226-4310, Vol. 8, no 4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aerospace systems are connected with the operational environment and other systems in general. The focus in aerospace product development is consequently shifting from a singular system perspective to a System-of-Systems (SoS) perspective. This increasing complexity gives rise to new levels of uncertainty that must be understood and managed to produce aerospace solutions for an ever-changing future. This paper presents an approach to using architecture frameworks, and ontologies with description logic reasoning capabilities, to break down SoS needs into required capabilities and functions. The intention of this approach is to provide a consistent way of obtaining the functions to be realized in order to meet the overarching capabilities and needs of an SoS. The breakdown with an architecture framework results in an initial design space representation of functions to be performed. The captured knowledge is then represented in an ontology with description logic reasoning capabilities, which provides a more flexible way to expand and process the initial design space representation obtained from the architecture framework. The proposed approach is ultimately tested in a search and rescue case study, partly based on the operations of the Swedish Maritime Administration. The results show that it is possible to break down SoS needs in a consistent way and that ontology with description logic reasoning can be used to process the captured knowledge to both expand and reduce an available design space representation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021. Vol. 8, no 4
Keywords [en]
system of systems, systems engineering, aerospace systems, architecture framework, ontology, description logic reasoning, search and rescue
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-175765DOI: 10.3390/aerospace8040118ISI: 000642619100001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-175765DiVA, id: diva2:1555744
Note

Funding: Swedish Innovation Agency (VINNOVA)Vinnova [NFFP7/2017-04838]

Available from: 2021-05-19 Created: 2021-05-19 Last updated: 2023-05-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. An Ontological and Reasoning Approach to System of Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Ontological and Reasoning Approach to System of Systems
2021 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

System-of-Systems (SoS) are all around us and are becoming more common in today’s highly interconnected world. Systems are connected with other systems and have strong dependencies with their operational environments. This leads to an increased level of complexity and risk during product development. A holistic view, and an SoS perspective, is consequently needed in order to develop an early understanding of the available design spaces for new system solutions. This thesis suggests a method that has been developed for this purpose, and to meet the demand for a more holistic product development. Overall, the method consists of two correlated approaches that show how a design space for SoSs can be generated and later processed with, for example, design space reductions. Search and Rescue (SAR) operations have been used as examples of typical SoSs throughout this work and in the development of the presented method. An architecture framework has been used to introduce a standardized and consistent way of understanding the relationships that exist between needs, capabilities and functions. This approach can consequently be used to generate a design space of functions to be performed to meet the overarching needs of an SoS. The second approach has been based on ontology and description logic reasoning. Ontology has here been used to represent an SoS design space with, for example, available SAR assets and their relationships with the operational environment. An SoS representation in an ontology model introduces additional expressiveness and the design space processing capabilities needed for a holistic design process and product development. Based on these results, this thesis and its suggested method and approaches contribute to holistic product development from an SoS perspective. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2021. p. 56
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Licentiate Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1907
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-175766 (URN)10.3384/lic.diva-175766 (DOI)9789179296353 (ISBN)
Presentation
2021-06-11, Online through Zoom (contact ludvig.knoos.franzen@liu.se) and ACAS, A-building, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Vinnova
Note

Additional funding agencies: Saab Aeronautics.

Available from: 2021-05-19 Created: 2021-05-19 Last updated: 2021-05-24Bibliographically approved
2. A System of Systems View in Early Product Development: An Ontology-Based Approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A System of Systems View in Early Product Development: An Ontology-Based Approach
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The concept of system-of-systems is becoming increasingly common and relevant in many engineering applications. Today’s highly interconnected world entails that more and more systems have dependencies on other systems. This increasing number of interdependencies results in new levels of complexity that must be managed in the early development of new products. Different viewpoints must also be handled to understand the many layers of a system-of-systems and its surrounding context. An ever-changing future results in uncertainty about the operational environment but also other aspects, such as available technologies, which complicates the matter even further. Traditional approaches for early product development can be used to some extent, but the complexity, scale and sheer number of interconnections in system-of-systems require a holistic perspective to obtain an early understanding of the problem, design spaces, and multiple aspects involved. 

This dissertation aims to present a method that has been developed to address the demand for a more holistic system-of-systems view in early product development. Overall, the method consists of four parts that together show how design spaces for system-of-systems can be generated and later processed to find suitable solutions. Search and rescue operations have been used as examples of system-of-systems throughout this work and in the development of the presented method. The first two parts of the method are based on architecture frameworks and ontologies with description logic reasoning capabilities. An architecture framework is here used to break down system-of-system needs into functions to be fulfilled by constituent systems. Ontologies are thereafter used to represent the outcome and the resulting system-of-system design spaces with involved entities and their relationships. Description logic reasoning can subsequently be used to process the available design spaces and suggest suitable system-of-system solutions. The last two parts of the method build upon a concept exploration and estimation approach, together with visual analytics. The approach illustrates how individual system concepts can be estimated from an ontology-represented design space, and how visual analytics can be used to explore different system-of-system viewpoints at an early stage. Based on the outcomes of the presented method, this dissertation contributes a holistic take on early product development from a system-of-systems perspective. 

Abstract [sv]

Konceptet system-av-system blir allt vanligare och relevant i många tekniska tillämpningsområden. Dagens högt sammanlänkade värld innebär att fler och fler system har beroenden med andra system. Detta ökande antal av ömsesidiga beroenden resulterar i nya nivåer av komplexitet som måste hanteras i den tidiga utvecklingen av nya produkter. Olika synsätt måste också hanteras för att förstå de många skikt som ett system-av-system består av och dess omgivande omständigheter. En ständigt föränderlig framtid resulterar i osäkerhet om den operativa miljön men även andra aspekter, såsom tillgängliga teknologier, vilket komplicerar saken ytterligare. Traditionella metoder för tidig produktutveckling kan användas i viss utsträckning, men komplexiteten, skalan och det stora antalet sammankopplingar i system-av-system kräver ett mer holistiskt synsätt för att skapa en tidig förståelse av problemet, designrymden och andra inblandade aspekter.

Denna avhandling syftar till att presentera en metod som har utvecklats för att möta efterfrågan på en mer holistisk system-av-system-vy i tidig produktutveckling. Sammantaget består metoden av fyra delar som tillsammans visar hur designrymder för system-av-system kan genereras och senare bearbetas för att hitta lämpliga lösningar. Sök- och räddningsinsatser har använts som exempel på system-av-system genom hela detta arbete och i utvecklingen av den presenterade metoden. De två första delarna av metoden är baserade på arkitekturramverk och ontologier med beskrivningslogiska resonemangsförmågor. Ett arkitekturramverk används här för att bryta ned system-av-system-behov i funktioner som ska uppfyllas av involverade system. Ontologier används därefter för att representera resultatet och de resulterande system-av-system-designrymderna med involverade entiteter och deras relationer. Beskrivningslogiska resonemang kan sedan användas för att bearbeta de tillgängliga designrymderna och föreslå lämpliga system-av-system-lösningar. De två sista delarna av metoden bygger på en konceptutforsknings och uppskattningsmetod tillsammans med visuell analysteknik. Tillvägagångssättet illustrerar hur individuella systemkoncept kan estimeras från en ontologirepresenterad designrymd, och hur visuell analysteknik kan användas för att utforska olika system-av-system-perspektiv i ett tidigt skede. Baserat på resultaten av den presenterade metoden bidrar denna avhandling med en helhetssyn på tidig produktutveckling utifrån en system-av-system-vy.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2023. p. 94
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 2317
Keywords
System-of-Systems, Systems Engineering, Ontology, Description Logic Reasoning, Design Space Exploration, Aircraft Design, Search and Rescue, Early Product Development
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-193644 (URN)10.3384/9789180751667 (DOI)9789180751650 (ISBN)9789180751667 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-06-02, C3, C-building, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Funding: The research has been performed as part of the System-of-Systems Trade Space Exploration (S2TEP) project which is part of the National Aeronautics Research Programme (NFFP7) funded by the Swedish Agency for Innovation (VINNOVA) and the Swedish Armed Forces. The project has also been done in collaboration with Saab Aeronautics.

Available from: 2023-05-11 Created: 2023-05-11 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved

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Knöös Franzén, LudvigStaack, IngoKrus, PetterJouannet, ChristopherAmadori, Kristian

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