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Bandgap Engineering of Lead-Free Halide Double Perovskites
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
2021 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Lead-free halide double perovskites (HDPs, A2BIBIIIX6) with attractive optical and electronic features are regarded as one of the most promising alternatives to overcome the toxicity and stability issues of lead halide perovskites. They provide a wide range of possible combinations and rich substitutional chemistry with interesting properties for various optoelectronic devices. However, the performance of state-of-the-art lead-free HDPs is not yet comparable to that of lead halide perovskites, especially in the photovoltaic field. One of the main reasons for this is that HDPs usually have large and/or indirect bandgaps, which limit their optical and optoelectronic properties in the visible and infrared region. In this thesis, we attempt to modify the bandgap and optical properties of HDPs using metal doping/alloying and crystallization control, as well as provide detailed understanding of the alloying at the atomic level. We also observe significant changes of the bandgap of HDPs at different temperatures (i.e., thermochromism) and uncover the reasons behind it. 

We first adopt the metal doping/alloying strategy to alter the absorption properties of benchmark HDPs Cs2AgBiBr6. By introducing Cu as the dopant in Cs2AgBiBr6, we significantly broaden the absorption edge from around 610 nm to around 860 nm. Systematic characterizations indicate that Cu doping introduces defect states (sub-bandgap states) in the bandgap, without changing the bandgap of Cs2AgBiBr6. Interestingly, these sub-bandgaps can generate considerable amount of band carriers upon optical excitation, making these double perovskites promising for near-infrared light detection. 

In parallel with the material modification using the metal doping/alloying strategy, the fundamental understanding of these doped/alloyed double perovskite is also of critical importance. In the second paper, we reveal the atomic-level structure of alloyed double perovskites by presenting a series of double perovskite alloys with the chemical formula Cs2AgIn1-xFexCl6 (x = 0-1) showing tunable bandgaps in the range of 2.8-1.6 eV. Our results show that Fe3+ substitutes In3+ in the lattice with the formation of [FeCl6]3−·[AgCl6]5− domains, which grow larger gradually as the Fe3+ concentration increases. It is noted that these domains could be further connected to form microscopically segregated Fe3+-rich phases in the double perovskite alloys. 

To narrow the bandgap of Cs2AgBiBr6, we also develop a crystallization control approach, where high temperature is employed to assist the single crystal growth. By simply increasing the crystal growth temperature from 60 oC to 150 oC, the bandgap of Cs2AgBiBr6 crystals can be reduced from 1.98 eV to 1.72 eV, which is the lowest reported bandgap for Cs2AgBiBr6 at ambient conditions. The underlying reason is hypothesized to be related to the increased level of Ag–Bi disorder in the crystal structure. 

Lastly, we observe an interesting reversible thermochromic behavior in HDPs Cs2NaFeCl6. Specifically, the optical bandgap of Cs2NaFeCl6 is reduced from 2.06 eV to 1.86 eV when the temperature increases from RT to 150 oC and turns back to its original value after cooling. Meanwhile, we observe lattice expansion during the heating/ cooling process without phase transition. Our first-principles calculation indicates that the underlying mechanism for the thermochromic phenomenon in Cs2NaFeCl6 is mainly related to the electron-phonon coupling. 

Although the development of HDPs is in its early stages, we believe that HDPs with impressive optical and electronic properties and rich substitutional chemistry have a bright future in optoelectronic and multifunctional applications. Our findings shed new light to the absorption and bandgap modulation of HDPs and provide new insights into the atomic-level structures of DPAs, which can help to develop efficient optoelectronic devices. 

Abstract [sv]

Blyfria halid-dubbelperovskiter (HDP:er, A2BIBIIIX6) med attraktiva optiska och elektroniska egenskaper betraktas som ett av de mest lovande alternativen för att övervinna de toxicitets- och stabilitetsproblem som bly-halidperovskiter för optoelektriska tillämpningar har. HDP:er ger upphov till en bredd av möjliga kombinationer och en rik möjlighet till substitutionskemi med intressanta egenskaper för olika optoelektriska komponenter. Prestandan hos vetenskapens bästa blyfria HDP:er är dock ännu inte jämförbar med bly-halidperovskiters, särskilt inte inom solcellsfältet. En av de främsta orsakerna till detta, är att HDP:er vanligtvis har stora och/eller indirekta bandgap, vilket begränsar deras optiska och optoelektroniska egenskaper i det synliga och infraröda området. I denna avhandling försöker vi modifiera bandgap och optiska egenskaper hos HDP:er med hjälp av metalldopning/legering och kristalliseringskontroll, så väl som ge en detaljerad förståelse för legeringen på atomnivå. Vi observerar även betydande förändringar av bandgap hos HDP:er vid olika temperaturer (dvs. Termokromism) och visar på orsakerna bakom detta. 

Vi antar först metalldopning-/legeringsstrategin för att ändra absorptionsegenskaperna hos HDP-utgångsmaterialet Cs2AgBiBr6. Genom att introducera Cu som dopämne i Cs2AgBiBr6 breddar vi absorptionskanten avsevärt, från cirka 610 nm till cirka 860 nm. Systematiska karakteriseringar indikerar att Cu-dopning introducerar defekttillstånd (sub-bandgap-tillstånd) i bandgapet, utan att ändra bandgapet för Cs2AgBiBr6. Intressant nog kan dessa subbandgap generera en betydande mängd bandbärare via optisk excitation, vilket gör dessa dubbelperovskiter lovande för ljusdetektering i det nära-infraröda området. 

Parallellt med materialmodifieringen med hjälp av metalldopnings- /legeringsstrategin är den grundläggande förståelsen av dessa dopade/legerade dubbelperovskiter också av avgörande betydelse. I den andra artikeln undersöker vi atomnivåstrukturen hos dopade dubbelperovskiter genom att presentera en serie dubbelperovskitlegeringar med den kemiska formeln Cs2AgIn1-xFexCl6 (x = 0–1) som visar ett justerbart bandgap i intervallet 2.8–1.6 eV. Våra resultat visar att Fe3+ ersätter In3+ i gitteret och bildar [FeCl6]3−·[AgCl6]5−domäner som gradvis växer sig större när Fe3+ koncentrationen ökar. Det är observerat att dessa domäner kan sammanföras ytterligare för att bilda mikroskopiskt segregerade Fe3+-rika faser i dubbelperovskitlegeringarna. 

För att minska Cs2AgBiBr6-HDP:ernas bandgap utvecklade vi även en kristalliseringskontrollmetod, där hög temperatur används för att främja enkristallin tillväxt. Genom att öka kristalltillväxttemperaturen från 60 oC till 150 oC kan bandgapet för Cs2AgBiBr6 minskas från 1.98 eV till 1.72 eV, vilket är det minsta bandgap som har rapporterats för Cs2AgBiBr6 i rumsförhållanden. Den underliggande orsaken antas vara relaterad till den ökade nivån av Ag-Bi-oordning i kristallstrukturen. 

Slutligen har vi observerat ett intressant reversibelt termokromatiskt beteende i Cs2NaFeCl6-HDP:er. Mer specifikt, reduceras det optiska bandgapet för Cs2NaFeCl6 från 2.06 eV till 1.86 eV när temperaturen ökar från RT till 150 oC och återgår till sitt ursprungliga värde efter kylning. Under tiden observerar vi gitterexpansion under uppvärmnings-/kylprocessen utan fasövergång. Vår första-princip-beräkning visar att den underliggande mekanismen för det termokromatiska fenomenet i Cs2NaFeCl6 främst är relaterade till elektron-fonon-koppling. 

Även om utvecklingen av HDP:er är i ett tidigt skede, tror vi att HDP:er med imponerande optiska och elektroniska egenskaper och rik substitutionskemi har en ljus framtid inom optoelektroniska och multifunktionella applikationer. Våra resultat kastar nytt ljus över absorption- och bandgapmoduleringen av HDP:er och ger nya insikter gällande atomnivåstrukturer av dubbelperovskitlegeringar, vilket kan bidra till utvecklingen av effektiva optoelektroniska komponenter.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2021. , p. 60
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 2156
Keywords [en]
Lead-free halide double perovskites, Metal doping/alloying, Bandgap engineering, Atomic-level structure, Thermochromism
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-178816DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-178816ISBN: 9789179296063 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-178816DiVA, id: diva2:1589299
Public defence
2021-09-23, Hörsal Nobel (BL32), Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Funding agencies: China Scholarship Council (CSC)

Available from: 2021-08-31 Created: 2021-08-31 Last updated: 2021-09-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Near-Infrared Light-Responsive Cu-Doped Cs2AgBiBr6
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Near-Infrared Light-Responsive Cu-Doped Cs2AgBiBr6
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2020 (English)In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 30, no 51, article id 2005521Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lead-free halide double perovskites (A(2)B(I)B(III)X(6)) with attractive optical and electronic features are considered to be a promising candidate to overcome the toxicity and stability issues of lead halide perovskites (APbX(3)). However, their poor absorption profiles limit device performance. Here the absorption band edge of Cs(2)AgBiBr(6)double perovskite to the near-infrared range is significantly broadened by developing doped double perovskites, Cs-2(Ag:Cu)BiBr6. The partial replacement of Ag ions by Cu ions in the crystal lattice is confirmed by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) measurements. Cu doping barely affects the bandgap of Cs2AgBiBr6; instead it introduces subbandgap states with strong absorption to the near-infrared range. More interestingly, the near-infrared absorption can generate band carriers upon excitation, as indicated by the photoconductivity measurement. This work sheds new light on the absorption modulation of halide double perovskites for future efficient optoelectronic devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2020
Keywords
Cu doping; lead-free double perovskites; near-infrared absorption; photoconductivity
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-170564 (URN)10.1002/adfm.202005521 (DOI)000570170300001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation [KAW 2019.0082]; Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Energy Agency [2018-004357]; Grant Agency of the Czech RepublicGrant Agency of the Czech Republic [GA19-05259S]; VR Starting Grant [2019-05279]; Carl Tryggers Stiftelse; Olle Engkvist Byggmastare Stiftelse; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009-00971]; China Scholarship Council (CSC)China Scholarship Council; Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation of NUST "MISIS" [K2-2019-001, 211]; Swedish Research Council (VR)Swedish Research Council [2019-05551]; Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council [2016-07213]

Available from: 2020-10-16 Created: 2020-10-16 Last updated: 2024-01-08
2. The atomic-level structure of bandgap engineered double perovskite alloys Cs2AgIn1-xFexCl6
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The atomic-level structure of bandgap engineered double perovskite alloys Cs2AgIn1-xFexCl6
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2021 (English)In: Chemical Science, ISSN 2041-6520, E-ISSN 2041-6539, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 1730-1735Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although lead-free halide double perovskites are considered as promising alternatives to lead halide perovskites for optoelectronic applications, state-of-the-art double perovskites are limited by their large bandgap. The doping/alloying strategy, key to bandgap engineering in traditional semiconductors, has also been employed to tune the bandgap of halide double perovskites. However, this strategy has yet to generate new double perovskites with suitable bandgaps for practical applications, partially due to the lack of fundamental understanding of how the doping/alloying affects the atomic-level structure. Here, we take the benchmark double perovskite Cs2AgInCl6 as an example to reveal the atomic-level structure of double perovskite alloys (DPAs) Cs2AgIn1-xFexCl6 (x = 0-1) by employing solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR). The presence of paramagnetic alloying ions (e.g. Fe3+ in this case) in double perovskites makes it possible to investigate the nuclear relaxation times, providing a straightforward approach to understand the distribution of paramagnetic alloying ions. Our results indicate that paramagnetic Fe3+ replaces diamagnetic In3+ in the Cs2AgInCl6 lattice with the formation of [FeCl6](3-)center dot[AgCl6](5-) domains, which show different sizes and distribution modes in different alloying ratios. This work provides new insights into the atomic-level structure of bandgap engineered DPAs, which is of critical significance in developing efficient optoelectronic/spintronic devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2021
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-173861 (URN)10.1039/d0sc05264g (DOI)000617028900013 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Energy Agency [2018-004357]; VR Starting Grant [2019-05279]; Carl Tryggers Stiftelse; Olle Engkvist Byggmastare Stiftelse; STINT grant [CH2018-7655]; National Natural Science Foundation of ChinaNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) [61704078]; Grant Agency of the Czech RepublicGrant Agency of the Czech Republic [GA19-05259S]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009-00971]; China Scholarship Council (CSC)China Scholarship Council

Available from: 2021-03-09 Created: 2021-03-09 Last updated: 2021-09-01
3. Lead-Free Halide Double Perovskite Cs2AgBiBr6with Decreased Band Gap
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lead-Free Halide Double Perovskite Cs2AgBiBr6with Decreased Band Gap
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2020 (English)In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 59, no 35, p. 15191-15194Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Environmentally friendly halide double perovskites with improved stability are regarded as a promising alternative to lead halide perovskites. The benchmark double perovskite, Cs2AgBiBr6, shows attractive optical and electronic features, making it promising for high-efficiency optoelectronic devices. However, the large band gap limits its further applications, especially for photovoltaics. Herein, we develop a novel crystal-engineering strategy to significantly decrease the band gap by approximately 0.26 eV, reaching the smallest reported band gap of 1.72 eV for Cs(2)AgBiBr(6)under ambient conditions. The band-gap narrowing is confirmed by both absorption and photoluminescence measurements. Our first-principles calculations indicate that enhanced Ag-Bi disorder has a large impact on the band structure and decreases the band gap, providing a possible explanation of the observed band-gap narrowing effect. This work provides new insights for achieving lead-free double perovskites with suitable band gaps for optoelectronic applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2020
Keywords
Ag-Bi disorder; band-gap engineering; crystal engineering; Cs2AgBiBr6; lead-free double perovskites
National Category
Theoretical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-167742 (URN)10.1002/anie.202005568 (DOI)000542143400001 ()32412132 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Energy Agency [2018-004357]; VR Starting Grant [2019-05279]; Carl Tryggers Stiftelse; Olle Engkvist Byggmastare Stiftelse; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009-00971]; Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Energy Agency; SSFSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research; China Scholarship Council (CSC)China Scholarship Council; Ministry of Science and High Education of the Russian Federation [075-15-2019-872 (14.Y26.31.0027/074-02-2018-327)]; Swedish Research Council (VR)Swedish Research Council [2019-05551]; Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council [2016-07213]

Available from: 2020-07-21 Created: 2020-07-21 Last updated: 2024-01-08

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