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Decoding Abilities in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities: The Contribution of Cognition, Language, and Home Literacy
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5896-7159
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0446-0827
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7824-1750
The Open University, UK; City, University of London, UK.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9332-1265
Show others and affiliations
2021 (English)In: Journal of Cognition, E-ISSN 2514-4820, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Decoding abilities in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are substantially lower than for typical readers. The underlying mechanisms of their poor reading remain uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the concurrent predictors of decoding ability in 136 adolescents with non-specific ID, and to evaluate the results in relation to previous findings on typical readers. The study included a broad range of cognitive and language measures as predictors of decoding ability. A LASSO regression analysis identified phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming (RAN) as the most important predictors. The predictors explained 57.73% of the variance in decoding abilities. These variables are similar to the ones found in earlier research on typically developing children, hence supporting our hypothesis of a delayed rather than a different reading profile. These results lend some support to the use of interventions and reading instructions, originally developed for typically developing children, for children and adolescents with non-specific ID.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Ubiquity Press, 2021. Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-16
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-179895DOI: 10.5334/joc.191OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-179895DiVA, id: diva2:1600648
Note

Funded by: Swedish Research Council (2016-04217)

Available from: 2021-10-05 Created: 2021-10-05 Last updated: 2022-11-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Words Don’t Come Easy: Decoding and Reading Comprehension Difficulties in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Words Don’t Come Easy: Decoding and Reading Comprehension Difficulties in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Att läsa är svårt : Avkodnings- och läsförståelsesvårigheter hos ungdomar med intellektuell funktionsnedsättning
Abstract [en]

Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have difficulties with decoding and reading comprehension. However, studies focussing on why these difficulties occur are very sparse, and the existing literature has found conflicting results. This thesis investigated the development of reading abilities and the concurrent cognitive, linguistic, and environmental predictors of decoding and reading comprehension in Swedish adolescents with ID of unknown aetiology. In addition, this thesis evaluated the applicability of one of the most commonly used theoretical frameworks of reading comprehension: the Simple View of Reading (SVR). The results showed that the development of reading abilities in adolescents with ID is in line with the model of developmental delay. This means that the development of reading abilities is not qualitatively different from typical reading development, but the rate is slower. Further, it means that the pattern of concurrent predictors is similar to the pattern found in a younger typically developing population. In Swedish adolescents with ID decoding is predicted by phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming (RAN), and reading comprehension is predicted by decoding, vocabulary, and phonological executive-loaded working memory (ELWM). This thesis also found that the developmental trajectory of decoding plateaus at a mental age of 8:9 years, while it is expected in typically developing children that decoding ability continues to increase until early adolescence. The explanation for this early plateau could be either cognitive or educational, but most likely a combination of both. Lastly, the results from this thesis also suggest that the SVR is not sufficient for explaining reading comprehension in adolescents with ID. Instead, a combination of the SVR and the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (LQH) is suggested as a successful way of explaining the variance in reading comprehension. Taken together, the results from this thesis implies that reading instruction and interventions originally developed for typically developing children is likely to be effective for individuals with ID.  

Abstract [sv]

Personer med intellektuell funktionsnedsättning (IF) uppvisar svårigheter med avkodning och läsförståelse, men studier som fokuserar på varför dessa svårigheter uppstår är få till antalet och litteraturen har visat motstridiga resultat. Den här avhandlingen undersökte utvecklingen av läsförmågan samt de kognitiva, språkliga och miljörelaterade prediktorerna av avkodning och läsförståelse hos svenska ungdomar med IF av okänd etiologi. Vidare applicerades the Simple View of Reading (SVR) som teoretiskt ramverk för att förklara variationer i läsförståelse. Resultaten visade att utvecklingen av läsförmågan hos ungdomar med IF är i linje med the model of developmental delay. Detta innebär att utvecklingen inte skiljer sig kvalitativt från den typiska läsutvecklingen, men att den går i en långsammare takt. Det innebär även att mönstret av prediktorer liknar det mönster som återfinns i den yngre typiskt utvecklade populationen. Hos svenska ungdomar med IF prediceras avkodning av fonologisk medvetenhet och snabb benämning, medan läsförståelse prediceras av avkodning, vokabulär och fonologiskt arbetsminne. Avhandlingen visade även att utvecklingen av avkodning verkar plana ut vid en mental ålder av 8:9 år, vilket går stick i stäv med forskning på typiskt utvecklade barn som visar att avkodningen fortsätter att utvecklas upp i tonåren. Orsaken till att avkodningsförmågan planar ut belyses utifrån både kognitiva och utvecklingsrelaterade förklaringsmodeller. Slutligen visade avhandlingen att SVR inte är tillräckligt för att förklara läsförståelse hos svenska ungdomar med IF. Istället föreslås en kombination av SVR och the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (LQH) som ett framgångsrikt sätt att förklara variationen i läsförståelseförmåga. I och med att utvecklingen av läsförmågan följer ett försenat, snarare än ett kvalitativt annorlunda, mönster bör läsundervisning och läsinterventioner som utvecklats för typiskt utvecklade barn potentiellt ha god effekt även för personer med IF.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2022. p. 52
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Sciences, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 844Studies in Disability Research, ISSN 2004-4887, E-ISSN 2004-4895 ; 110
Keywords
Intellectual disability, Decoding, Reading comprehension, Intellektuell funktionsnedsättning, Avkodning, Läsförståelse
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-189985 (URN)10.3384/9789179295424 (DOI)9789179295417 (ISBN)9789179295424 (ISBN)
Public defence
2022-12-16, Ada Lovelace, B-building, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-11-15 Created: 2022-11-15 Last updated: 2022-11-30Bibliographically approved

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Nilsson, KarinDanielsson, HenrikElwér, ÅsaSamuelsson, Stefan

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