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Tunable Structural Color Images by UV-Patterned Conducting Polymer Nanofilms on Metal Surfaces
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7410-2531
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1365-7469
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
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2021 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 33, no 33, article id 2102451Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Precise manipulation of light-matter interactions has enabled a wide variety of approaches to create bright and vivid structural colors. Techniques utilizing photonic crystals, Fabry-Perot cavities, plasmonics, or high-refractive-index dielectric metasurfaces have been studied for applications ranging from optical coatings to reflective displays. However, complicated fabrication procedures for sub-wavelength nanostructures, limited active areas, and inherent absence of tunability of these approaches impede their further development toward flexible, large-scale, and switchable devices compatible with facile and cost-effective production. Here, a novel method is presented to generate structural color images based on monochromic conducting polymer films prepared on metallic surfaces via vapor phase polymerization and ultraviolet (UV) light patterning. Varying the UV dose enables synergistic control of both nanoscale film thickness and polymer permittivity, which generates controllable structural colors from violet to red. Together with grayscale photomasks this enables facile fabrication of high-resolution structural color images. Dynamic tuning of colored surfaces and images via electrochemical modulation of the polymer redox state is further demonstrated. The simple structure, facile fabrication, wide color gamut, and dynamic color tuning make this concept competitive for applications like multifunctional displays.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-V C H Verlag GMBH , 2021. Vol. 33, no 33, article id 2102451
Keywords [en]
poly[3; 4-ethylenedioxythiophene]; redox-tunable; structural colors; UV patterning
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-180021DOI: 10.1002/adma.202102451ISI: 000669418200001PubMedID: 34219300OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-180021DiVA, id: diva2:1601495
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF)Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Research Council (VR)Swedish Research Council; Wenner-Gren Foundations; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009 00971]

Available from: 2021-10-08 Created: 2021-10-08 Last updated: 2023-12-28
In thesis
1. Reflective structural colors and their actuation using electroactive conducting polymers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reflective structural colors and their actuation using electroactive conducting polymers
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The integration of inorganic photonic nanostructures with organic materials opens new possibilities to dynamically modify the optical response of photonic devices. This thesis focuses on how to generate efficient reflective structural colors and tune them in combination with a conducting polymer (CP). The main technological interest lies in color reflective displays, devices with ultralow power consumption that work with reflected environmental light. The main challenge is to obtain dynamic color tunability while maintaining good chromaticity and brightness. We first studied how to make efficient reflective structural colors and focused on highly reflective optical nanocavities based on metal-insulator-metal (MIM), combining the Fabry-Pérot effect and a broadband absorber. We demonstrated a full color palette by changing the spacer thickness and proposed different configurations to improve the chromaticity and reproduce black. We also explored subtractive coloration with a cyan-yellow-magenta (CYM) system to increase the relative luminance for reflective displays. We covered the CYM spectrum by combining plasmonic nanodisks with optical nanocavities, using a scalable nanofabrication method based on colloidal lithography. Subsequently, we modified our optical nanocavities by replacing the dielectric spacer with a low bandgap electroactive CP, polythieno[3,4 b]thiophene(pT34bT), to obtain active color tunability. By integrating the optical nanocavities in an electrochemical cell, we proved tunability of the reflected color across all the visible spectrum with low operating voltages and similar reflectance values for all the oxidation states. Those cavities can be considered a proof of principle for the development of tunable monopixels.  In addition, we explored vapour phase polymerization (VPP) as an alternative deposition method with direct patterning possibilities by UV-exposure of the precursor oxidant film. We developed optical reflective nanocavities with a spacer based on poly[3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene]:Tosylate (PEDOT:Tos) on metal mirrors, generating color images by different UV exposures. We showed the feasibility of generating images by using a UV photomask with different contrasts. Those cavities could also be switched in color by electrochemical tuning in an electrolyte, reaching different electrochromic states. This method has the potential to be extended to other types of polymers and to be used for display technologies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2022. p. 139
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 2240
Keywords
Structural colors, Reflective displays, Optical nanocavities, Conducting polymers, Electrochemical tuning.
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-187918 (URN)10.3384/9789179294038 (DOI)9789179294021 (ISBN)9789179294038 (ISBN)
Public defence
2022-09-30, K1, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Norrköping, 10:15 (English)
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Available from: 2022-08-30 Created: 2022-08-30 Last updated: 2022-08-30Bibliographically approved

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