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Aberrant resting-state connectivity of auditory, ventral attention/salience and default-mode networks in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. (Linnaeus Center HEAD)
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8903-7931
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0446-0827
Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
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2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 16, article id 972730.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Numerous resting-state studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have reported aberrant functional connectivity (FC) between the default-mode network (DMN) and the ventral attention/salience network (VA/SN). This finding has commonly been interpreted as an index of poorer DMN regulation associated with symptoms of mind wandering in ADHD literature. However, a competing perspective suggests that dysfunctional organization of the DMN and VA/SN may additionally index increased sensitivity to the external environment. The goal of the current study was to test this latter perspective in relation to auditory distraction by investigating whether ADHD-adults exhibit aberrant FC between DMN, VA/SN, and auditory networks. Methods Twelve minutes of resting-state fMRI data was collected from two adult groups: ADHD (n = 17) and controls (n = 17); from which the FC between predefined regions comprising the DMN, VA/SN, and auditory networks were analyzed. Results A weaker anticorrelation between the VA/SN and DMN was observed in ADHD. DMN and VA/SN hubs also exhibited aberrant FC with the auditory network in ADHD. Additionally, participants who displayed a stronger anticorrelation between the VA/SN and auditory network at rest, also performed better on a cognitively demanding behavioral task that involved ignoring a distracting auditory stimulus. Conclusion Results are consistent with the hypothesis that auditory distraction in ADHD is linked to aberrant interactions between DMN, VA/SN, and auditory systems. Our findings support models that implicate dysfunctional organization of the DMN and VA/SN in the disorder and encourage more research into sensory interactions with these major networks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media SA , 2022. Vol. 16, article id 972730.
Keywords [en]
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; adults; resting state; functional connectivity; default mode network; salience network; auditory network
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-189095DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2022.972730ISI: 000859638200001PubMedID: 36148149OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-189095DiVA, id: diva2:1702747
Available from: 2022-10-11 Created: 2022-10-11 Last updated: 2024-01-08
In thesis
1. Auditory Distraction in ADHD: From Behaviour to the Brain
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Auditory Distraction in ADHD: From Behaviour to the Brain
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Auditiv distraktion vid Adhd : Från beteende till hjärna
Abstract [en]

ADHD is a heterogenous disorder encompassing neurodevelopmental deficits in cognitive control. Auditory distraction is a common clinically reported symptom in ADHD, yet empirical research investigating the manifestation of auditory distraction in the disorder is remarkably scarce. Findings from cognitive hearing science highlight the crucial role cognitive control plays in an individual’s ability to gate, attenuate and/or compensate for auditory distraction. However the field is yet to extensively test hypotheses in normal hearing populations with neurodevelopmental deficits in cognitive control such as ADHD. This thesis contributes to narrowing the gap within these two fields of research by studying auditory distraction in this clinical population to a greater extent than previous reports in the literature.

Using a combination of both behavioural and neuroimaging methods, the research presented here was able to show that adults and adolescents with ADHD are inherently more susceptible to auditory distraction than their non-ADHD counterparts. At the behavioural level, impaired task performance due to auditory distraction was more likely to manifest in ADHD participants when the working memory system was under high processing load. At the neural level, functional aberrancy in auditory attention was evident at early stages of sensory processing in a variety of tasks, implicating both exogenous and endogenous control systems in ADHD. Furthermore, the distribution of ADHD-symptom severity across participants was shown to correlate with increases in both cortical activity to auditory distractors and intrinsic functional connectivity between auditory and exogenous attention networks.

In line with evidence from cognitive hearing science, the general findings of this thesis demonstrate that cognitive control plays an important role in the ability to perceive sound under suboptimal listening conditions and hamper distraction. In addition, findings challenge theories of ADHD that question the extent in which sensory-related attentional control is impaired. More empirical research on the auditory modality in ADHD is therefore encouraged in order to revise models, improve diagnostic tools, and develop evidence-based interventions targeting study/work environments.

Abstract [sv]

Adhd är en heterogen neuropsykiatrisk funktionsnedsättning som kännetecknas av nedsatt kognitiv kontroll. Ett vanligt förekommande symptom vid adhd är ljudöverkänslighet, vilket innebär en ökad känslighet för distraherande ljud, men empirisk forskning kring ljudkänslighetens roll i adhd är anmärkningsvärt knapphändig. Forskning från kognitiv hörselvetenskap belyser den viktiga roll kognitiv kontroll spelar i en individs förmåga att filtrera, dämpa och/eller kompensera för ljudöverkänslighet hos personer med hörselnedsättningar. Emellertid saknas det forskning kring hur detta fungerar hos normalhörande personer med nedsättningar i kognitiv kontroll till följd av neuropsykiatriska funktionsnedsättningar så som adhd. Målet med denna avhandling är att bidra till att minska kunskapsklyftan inom dessa två forskningsområden genom att studera känsligheten för distraherande ljud i denna kliniska population.

Genom att kombinera beteende- och hjärnavbildningsmetoder framkom att vuxna och ungdomar med adhd-diagnos påverkas mer av distraherande ljud än personer utan adhd. På beteendenivån uppvisade adhd-deltagare svårigheter med distraherande ljud främst när arbetsminnessystemet var under hög belastning. På neural nivå framkom funktionella avvikelser under tidig auditiv bearbetning för en mängd olika uppgifter. Detta tyder på störningar i både exogena och endogena kontrollsystem i adhd. Det fanns också samband mellan adhd-symptomens svårighetsgrad och neurala förändringar, där ökande mängd symptom hängde samman med såväl ökad kortikal aktivitet som svar på distraherande ljud som ökade neurala kopplingar mellan auditiva områden och exogena uppmärksamhetsnätverk.

I linje med teorier från kognitiv hörselvetenskap visar fynden i den här avhandlingen att kognitiv kontroll spelar en viktig roll i förmågan att uppfatta ljud under suboptimala lyssningsförhållanden samt att hantera distraherande ljud. Dessutom utmanar resultaten teorier som ifrågasätter huruvida sensorisk uppmärksamhetskontroll är nedsatt i adhd. Mer empirisk forskning om den auditiva domänens roll i adhd behövs för att revidera modeller, förbättra diagnostiska verktyg och utveckla evidensbaserade interventioner inriktade på studie- och arbetsmiljöer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2022. p. 45
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Sciences, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 834Studies from the Swedish Institute for Disability Research, ISSN 1650-1128 ; 107
Keywords
Auditory distraction, Cognitive control, Attention, Working memory, ADHD, Auditiv distraktion, Kognitiv kontroll, Uppmärksamhet, Arbetsminne, Adhd
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-183960 (URN)10.3384/9789179293031 (DOI)9789179293024 (ISBN)9789179293031 (ISBN)
Public defence
2022-04-29, TEMCAS, Building T, Campus Valla, Linköping, 14:00 (English)
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Available from: 2022-03-29 Created: 2022-03-29 Last updated: 2023-01-30Bibliographically approved

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