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Dense and hard TiWC protective coatings grown with tungsten ion irradiation using WC-HiPIMS/TiC-DCMS co-sputtering technique without external heating
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-3289-8997
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-4898-5115
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-6602-7981
Plansee Composite Materials GmbH, Lechbruck am See, DE-86983, Germany.
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2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 618, artikel-id 156639Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Titanium tungsten carbide (TiWC) coatings are deposited by a combined high-power impulse and dc magnetron co-sputtering (HiPIMS/DCMS) technique. No external heating is applied during deposition phase, instead, the thermally driven adatom mobility is substituted by heavy ion irradiation. DCMS sources equipped with titanium carbide targets provide constant neutral fluxes to establish the predominant coating structures, whereas tungsten carbide target in HiPIMS mode serves as the source of heavy metal-ions. Substrate bias of −60 V is synchronized to W+ ion-rich time domains of HiPIMS pulses to minimize the contribution from working gas ions. The influence of W+ ion flux intensity, controlled by varying peak target current density (JT), on film properties is investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals the presence of over stoichiometric carbon forming an amorphous phase, the amount of which can be fine-tuned by varying JT. Changes in film composition as a function of JT are explained based on the in-situ ion mass spectroscopy analyses. Dense TiWC coatings by hybrid process exhibit hardness higher than 30 GPa, which are comparable to TiWC films deposited by DCMS with dc substrate bias and external heating. The relative energy consumption in the hybrid process is reduced by 77 % as compared to high-temperature DCMS processing.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2023. Vol. 618, artikel-id 156639
Nationell ämneskategori
Den kondenserade materiens fysik Nanoteknik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-191779DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2023.156639ISI: 000935360500001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-191779DiVA, id: diva2:1736684
Forskningsfinansiär
Vinnova, 2016-05156Vetenskapsrådet, 2017-03813Vetenskapsrådet, 2017-06701
Anmärkning

Funding: VINNOVA (FunMat-II project ) [2016-05156]; Swedish Research Council [2017-03813, 2017-06701]; Swedish government strategic research area grant AFM - SFO MatLiU [2009- 00971]

Tillgänglig från: 2023-02-14 Skapad: 2023-02-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-03-13Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Effect of metal ion irradiation on hard coating synthesis by physical vapor deposition
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Effect of metal ion irradiation on hard coating synthesis by physical vapor deposition
2023 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis is to understand and control how the ions in the plasma influence the film growth during thin film deposition processes. Two physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques are investigated, namely magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc evaporation. For magnetron sputtering, the unconventional hybrid high-power impulse and direct current magnetron cosputtering (HiPIMS/DCMS) configuration is used in this work. By synchronizing the substrate bias pulses with the HiPIMS pulses by a time offset and duration, the metal ions from the target material can be selected to impinge the growing film, whereas the contribution of the working gas ions can be effectively reduced. Two aspects are explored, low-mass ion subplantation and heavy-mass ion irradiation.

The thesis begins with establishing the correlation between N2 pressure and plasma properties of the cathodic arc evaporation process using Ti0.5Al0.5 target. The results show Ti ions are the dominant species, followed by Al+. On the other hand, due to the shorter mean free path of the species with increasing N2 pressure, the ion energies and the effective electron temperature decrease while electron density increases. Consequently, comparing the TiAlN coatings grown at lower and higher N2 pressures, the crystallographic textures changes from cubic 220 to 111 along the growth direction, and the residual stress reduces from compressive (-3.4 GPa) to almost stress-free (0.6 GPa).

The rest of the thesis addresses the influence of ionized species on microstructures, with a focus on tuning film properties by ions in the plasma. Ti1-x(AlySi1-y)xN coatings (0.38 < x < 0.76 and 0.68 ≤ y ≤ 1.00) were deposited with an AlSi-HiPIMS/Ti-DCMS with synchronized substrate bias setup. The results show that the coatings deposited by this method have higher Al and Si solubilities in NaCl-structured TiN than other PVD techniques due to low mass ion subplantations. Additionally, a range of films with different compositions display a combination of high hardness (~ 30 GPa) and low residual stress (s < 0.5 GPa), which highlights the benefits of minimizing the Ar+ incorporation by synchronizing substrate bias to the Al+/Si+-rich portion of the HiPIMS pulses. The selected TiAlSiN coatings were then studied for the crater wear resistance of high-speed cutting performance on ball bearing steel (100Cr6). The effects of phase contents and microstructures on cutting performance are evaluated.

This is further extended by a study of the influence of neutral and ion fluxes overlap and the subplantation range of low-mass ions. This is accomplished by introducing the 1-fold substrate table rotation, different target-to-substrate distances, and substrate bias voltage in a AlSi-HiPIMS/Ti-DCMS hybrid deposition process. The microstructure and phase analysis show the necessity of overlap between HiPIMS and DCMS fluxes to deposit TiAlSiN solid solutions. The compositional variation of the multilayers can be controlled by the applied substrate bias and table rotational speed. Rotation during deposition may yield coatings comparable in hardness to the ones without rotation at the expense of higher compressive stress.

The effectiveness of controlling heavy ion irradiation is investigated by replacing external heating with high-mass W+ irradiation to grow dense and hard titanium tungsten carbide (TiWC) coatings by WC-HiPIMS/TiC-DCMS with synchronized bias technique. The ionization degree of W+ are controlled by the peak current density (0.27 ≤ JT ≤ 1.36 A/cm2). The results show that W+ irradiation effectively densified TiWC coatings without external heating. The total energy consumption per hour is reduced by 77% using the HiPIMS/DCMS setup without external heating, yet this TiWC coating is 10 GPa harder than similar coating grown by self-bias DCMS with heating.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2023. s. 59
Serie
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 2288
Nationell ämneskategori
Nanoteknik Den kondenserade materiens fysik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-191776 (URN)10.3384/9789180750448 (DOI)978-91-8075-043-1 (ISBN)978-91-8075-044-8 (ISBN)
Disputation
2023-03-14, Planck, Campus Valla, Linköping, 09:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Forskningsfinansiär
Vinnova, 2016-05156Vetenskapsrådet, 2017-03813Vetenskapsrådet, 2017-06701International Interdisciplinary Materials Science Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials (AFM), 2009-00971
Tillgänglig från: 2023-02-14 Skapad: 2023-02-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-02-15Bibliografiskt granskad

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Hsu, Tun-WeiGreczynski, GrzegorzBoyd, RobertOdén, Magnus

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