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Composite Nanostructured Materials for Renewable Energy Applications
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8985-0604
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Komposit Nanostrukturerade Material för Tillämpningar för Förnybar Energi (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

Diverse sources of energy are becoming increasingly significant in today's world. The most common source of energy today is fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and gas. While this energy source has many advantages, it also comes with many problems. In order to meet this demand, environmentally friendly and sustainable alternatives to energy are urgently needed. Renewable energy such as hydro, wind, photovoltaics, biomass, and geothermal is an attractive and promising kind of energy. Solar energy is among the most efficient, cleanest, and cheapest sources of energy. In this thesis, two photo-processes are utilized to produce solar energy using nanostructured materials. One is photocatalysis, mainly photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting for hydrogen production and photodegradation of organic dyes, and another is a sunlight-powered photovoltaic cell.  

In this thesis, we aim to demonstrate optimized low-cost sustainable electrodes based on nanostructured materials for solar energy applications. For PEC water splitting two materials namely ZnO NRs and CuO NLs are fabricated by hydrothermal methods followed by deposition of different materials such as Ag2WO4 and AgBr. These materials show relatively high PEC water splitting efficiency using sunlight. Similarly, for the photodegradation of organic dyes Ta2O5 is used with the addition of Ag/AgCl nanoparticles (Ag/AgCl NPs), which results in an effective plasmonic photocatalyst for the removal of water-soluble Congo red (CR) dye compounds. For high-efficiency solar cells two methods are applied. Firstly, a FDTD simulation method was applied to study the plasmon enhancement of light absorption from p-i-n junction GaAs nanowires. Secondly a study of anisotropic deformation of colloidal particles exposed to heavy ions irradiation. Finally, a novel low-cost template-assisted method was used in order to improve the alignment of ZnO NRs grown on Si substrates. 

Abstract [sv]

Idag finns det ett ökat behov av olika energikällor. Den energikälla som i stor utsträckning används är fossilt bränsle, som till exempel kol, olja och gas. Emellertid finns det många kriser som associeras med denna energikälla. Därför är det bråttom att utveckla alternativa energikällor som är ekologiska och uthålliga. Förnybara energikällor som väte, vind, sol, biomassa och geotermisk energi är attraktiva. I denna avhandling demonstrerar vi två fotoprocesser som använder solenergi och är baserade på nanostrukturmaterial. Den första metoden som vi använder är fotokatalys: fotoelektrokemisk (PEC) vattensplittring för väteproduktion. Den andra metoden är fotodegradering av organiska färgämnen genom att använda solstrålning som inkommande energi. Dessutom undersöker vi hur nanotrådar kan användas som aktiva solceller.   

Avsikten med avhandlingen är att demonstrera optimiserade, billiga och uthålliga elektroder baserade på nanostrukturer för solenergitillämpningar. För PEC baserad vattensplittring använder vi två material, ZnO och CuO, som tillverkas med hjälp av hydrotermisk metoder följt av att vi deponerar olika material som Ag2WO4, och AgBr. Dessa material visar relativt hög effektivitet för PEC baserade användande av synligt solljus. För fotodegradering av organiska färgämnen användes Ta2O3 följt av deponering av Ag/AgCl nanopartiklar, som resulterar i effektiv plasmonisk fotokatalys för borttagande av det vattenlösliga Congo röda färgämnet. För högeffektiva solceller tillämpas två metoder först, en FDTD-simuleringsmetod användes för att studera plasmonförstärkningen av ljusabsorption från’’p-i-n junction’’ GaAs nanotrådar. För det andra en studie av anisotrop deformation av kolloidala partiklar under kraftig jonbestrålning. Slutligen användes en ny, billig mallassisterad metod för att förbättra anpassningen av ZnO NRs odlade på Si substrat.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2023. , p. 68
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 2290
Keywords [en]
Solar energy, Photocatalysis, Solar cells, Nanostructured materials, ZnO, CuO, Ta2O5, GaAs
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-191823DOI: 10.3384/9789180750561ISBN: 9789180750554 (print)ISBN: 9789180750561 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-191823DiVA, id: diva2:1737540
Public defence
2023-03-15, TP1,Täppan, Campus Norrköping, Norrköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-02-17 Created: 2023-02-17 Last updated: 2024-01-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Solar-Driven Photoelectrochemical Performance of Novel ZnO/Ag2WO4/AgBr Nanorods-Based Photoelectrodes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solar-Driven Photoelectrochemical Performance of Novel ZnO/Ag2WO4/AgBr Nanorods-Based Photoelectrodes
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2021 (English)In: Nanoscale Research Letters, ISSN 1931-7573, E-ISSN 1556-276X, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 133Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Highly efficient photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation under solar visible light is crucial for water splitting to produce hydrogen as a source of sustainable energy. Particularly, silver-based nanomaterials are important for PEC performance due to their surface plasmon resonance which can enhance the photoelectrochemical efficiency. However, the PEC of ZnO/Ag2WO4/AgBr with enhanced visible-light water oxidation has not been studied so far. Herein, we present a novel photoelectrodes based on ZnO/Ag2WO4/AgBr nanorods (NRs) for PEC application, which is prepared by the low-temperature chemical growth method and then by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The synthesized photoelectrodes were investigated by several characterization techniques, emphasizing a successful synthesis of the ZnO/Ag2WO4/AgBr heterostructure NRs with excellent photocatalysis performance compared to pure ZnO NRs photoelectrode. The significantly enhanced PEC was due to improved photogeneration and transportation of electrons in the heterojunction due to the synergistic effect of the heterostructure. This study is significant for basic understanding of the photocatalytic mechanism of the heterojunction which can prompt further development of novel efficient photoelectrochemical-catalytic materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2021
Keywords
ZnO nanorods; Silver tungsten; Silver bromide; Heterojunction; Photoelectrodes; Water oxidation
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-178741 (URN)10.1186/s11671-021-03586-z (DOI)000687150800001 ()34417906 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Linkoping University, Sweden

Available from: 2021-08-30 Created: 2021-08-30 Last updated: 2024-01-08
2. Plasmon-Enhanced Light Absorption in (p-i-n) Junction GaAs Nanowire Solar Cells: An FDTD Simulation Method Study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plasmon-Enhanced Light Absorption in (p-i-n) Junction GaAs Nanowire Solar Cells: An FDTD Simulation Method Study
2021 (English)In: Nanoscale Research Letters, ISSN 1931-7573, E-ISSN 1556-276X, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 149Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A finite-difference time-domain method is developed for studying the plasmon enhancement of light absorption from vertically aligned GaAs nanowire arrays decorated with Au nanoparticles. Vertically aligned GaAs nanowires with a length of 1 mu m, a diameter of 100 nm and a periodicity of 165-500 nm are functionalized with Au nanoparticles with a diameter between 30 and 60 nm decorated in the sidewall of the nanowires. The results show that the metal nanoparticles can improve the absorption efficiency through their plasmonic resonances, most significantly within the near-bandgap edge of GaAs. By optimizing the nanoparticle parameters, an absorption enhancement of almost 35% at 800 nm wavelength is achieved. The latter increases the chance of generating more electron-hole pairs, which leads to an increase in the overall efficiency of the solar cell. The proposed structure emerges as a promising material combination for high-efficiency solar cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2021
Keywords
GaAs nanowire; Au nanoparticles; Surface plasmon; Optical simulation; Field enhancement; Solar cells; Photoconversion
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-179863 (URN)10.1186/s11671-021-03603-1 (DOI)000698382600004 ()34542730 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2021-10-06 Created: 2021-10-06 Last updated: 2024-01-08
3. Anisotropic deformation of colloidal particles under 4 MeV Cu ions irradiation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anisotropic deformation of colloidal particles under 4 MeV Cu ions irradiation
2022 (English)In: Materials Research Express, E-ISSN 2053-1591, Vol. 9, no 8, article id 086506Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Anisotropic deformation of colloidal particles was investigated under ion irradiation with 4 MeV Cu ions. In this study, 0.5 mu m-diameter colloidal silica particles, 0.5 mu m-diameter Au-silica core-shell particles, and 15 nm-diameter Au colloids embedding in a planar Si/SiO2 matrix were irradiated with 4 MeV Cu ions at room temperature and normal incidence. In colloidal silica particles, ion beam irradiation causes dramatic anisotropic deformation; silica expands perpendicular to the beam and contracts parallel, whereas Au cores elongate. Au colloids in a planar SiO2 matrix were anisotropically transformed from spherical colloids to elongated nanorods by irradiating them with 4 MeV Cu ions. The degree of anisotropy varied with ion flux. Upon irradiating the embedded Au colloids, dark-field light scattering experiments revealed a distinct color shift to yellow, which indicates a shift in surface plasmon resonance. A surface plasmon resonance measurement reveals the plasmon resonance bands are split along the arrays of Au colloids. Our measurements have revealed resonance shifts that extend into the near-infrared spectrum by as much as 50 nm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP Publishing Ltd, 2022
Keywords
silica dispersion; stober method; silica- au core-shell; au colloids; anisotropic deformation; localized surface plasmons
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-187882 (URN)10.1088/2053-1591/ac87ef (DOI)000842247300001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Ajman University Internal Research Grant, UAE [2021-IRG-HBS-14]

Available from: 2022-08-31 Created: 2022-08-31 Last updated: 2024-01-08

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