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How Children With Mild Intellectual Disability Experience Self-driving Buses: In Support of Agency
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2919-098x
VTI, The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
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2023 (English)In: Transaction on Transport Sciences, ISSN 1802-971X, E-ISSN 1802-9876, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 21-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Emerging technology for public transportation is often not fully aligned with an inclusive design strategy. Many people with intellectual disability experience their needs and desires not being fully considered. Responding to this problem, the purpose of this study is to investigate how children with mild intellectual disability experience self-driving buses. On each bus, a person called "safety driver" monitors the ride and takes control if a problematic situation arises. The purpose is also to investigate what roles support persons and safety drivers play. In addition, the research aims to propose improvements in how the design of these self-driving buses can better motivate children with intellectual disability to use them in support of their agency. To address this, we arranged and studied seven rides on self-driving buses, for 16 children diagnosed to have mild intellectual disability, and their support persons. Interviews with the children were held after the rides, and both the rides and interviews were video recorded. The analysis was in part inductive but also employed a theory based on motivation: self-determination theory. For several children, the bus worked as a vehicle for a social sightseeing tour of the local environment, and the current design did not hinder such an experience. Overall, many of the children had a positive experience, but there is room for improvement regarding the design of the buses. Some children expressed curiosity and a few frustrations with how the bus behaved in traffic. For instance, it was difficult for the children to understand why the bus braked for things that were hard for them to perceive. From observation, it appears that the accompanying support person and safety driver played an important role in making children safe and shaping the social environment on the bus. The support persons were also essential for some children to ride the bus at all. The safety driver provided the children with information about how the bus worked. Both the safety driver and the support person had a positive impact on the children's experience. To meet the children's needs and skills, and to improve their motivation for riding the buses again, the buses need to decelerate less abruptly, have easier and consistently designed seatbelts, and communicate what they do, see, and signal more clearly. We argue that further studies at this level of detail are crucial to ensure that new technologies are indeed designed for everyone.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2023. Vol. 14, no 2, p. 21-31
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Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-195189DOI: 10.5507/tots.2023.002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-195189DiVA, id: diva2:1768982
Funder
Wallenberg AI, Autonomous Systems and Software Program (WASP)Available from: 2023-06-16 Created: 2023-06-16 Last updated: 2024-04-17

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Forsblad, MattiasArvola, MattiasDanielsson, Henrik

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