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Enhanced quality of single crystal CrBx/TiBy diboride superlattices by controlling boron stoichiometry during sputter deposition
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-5828-5796
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-3203-7935
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Material Physics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
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2024 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, artikel-id 159606Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Single-crystal CrB2/TiB2 diboride superlattices with well-defined layers are promising candidates for neutron optics. However, excess B in sputter-deposited TiBy using a single TiB2 target deteriorates the structural quality of CrBx/TiBy (0001) superlattices. We study the influence of co-sputtering of TiB2 + Ti on the stoichiometry and crystalline quality of 300-nm-thick TiBy single layers and CrBx/TiBy (0001) superlattices on Al2O3(0001) substrates grown by DC magnetron sputter epitaxy at growth-temperatures TS ranging from 600 to 900 °C. By controlling the relative applied powers to the TiB2 and Ti magnetrons, y could be reduced from 3.3 to 0.9. TiB2.3 grown at 750 °C exhibited epitaxial domains about 10x larger than non-co-sputtered films. Close-to-stoichiometry CrB1.7/TiB2.3 superlattices with modulation periods Λ = 6 nm grown at 750 °C showed the highest single crystal quality and best layer definition. TiB2.3 layers display rough top interfaces indicating kinetically limited growth while CrB1.7 forms flat and abrupt top interfaces indicating epitaxial growth with high adatom mobility.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2024. artikel-id 159606
Nyckelord [en]
Superlattice, Diboride, Thin film, Co-sputtering, Nanostructure
Nationell ämneskategori
Den kondenserade materiens fysik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-200730DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2024.159606ISI: 001183388000001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-200730DiVA, id: diva2:1834901
Anmärkning

Funding: Swedish National Graduate School in Neutron Scattering (SwedNess), Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) GSn15 - 0008, Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials (AFM) at Linköping University (Faculty Grant SFO Mat LiU No. 2009 00971), Center in Nanoscience and technology at LiTH CeNano, Hans Werthén Foundation (IVA), Society of Vacuum Coaters Foundation (SVCF), Swedish Research Council (VR) Grant numbers 2019-00191 (for accelerator-based ion-technological center in tandem accelerator laboratory in Uppsala University), VR and SSF for access to ARTEMI, the Swedish National Infrastructure in Advanced Electron Microscopy (2021-00171 and RIF21-0026), Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation for the support of the electron microscopy laboratory at Linköping University (KAW 2015.0043), VR 2021-00159 for the Swedish neutron reflectometer SuperADAM at ILL 10.5291/ILL-DATA.CRG-2964, and Plansee GmbH for providing diboride targets.

Tillgänglig från: 2024-02-06 Skapad: 2024-02-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-04-12Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Magnetron Sputter Epitaxy of CrB2/TiB2 Diboride Superlattice Thin Films
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Magnetron Sputter Epitaxy of CrB2/TiB2 Diboride Superlattice Thin Films
2024 (Engelska)Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Artificial superlattices with their exceptional properties have been popular in a broad range of applications such as electronic, magnetic, optical, and hard coating. Another potential application for single crystal artificial superlattices is highly efficient interference neutron optics, owing to an ultimate interface width of just ±½ atomic layer. Moreover, studies of superlattices have been instrumental in understanding the hardening mechanisms in transition metal nitrides and carbides while such studies on transition metal diborides is lacking, despite extensive studies on monolithic transition metal diboride thin films.

This work is an initiative to grow CrB2/TiB2 (0001) diboride superlattices epitaxially onto Al2O3 (0001) substrates by direct current magnetron sputter epitaxy implementing two different approaches; compound diboride targets, and co-sputtering of a metal target with a compound target. Effects of substrate temperature, B stoichiometry (B/TM ratio), modulation period Λ = DCrB2 + DTiB2, layer thickness ratio , and relative applied power to magnetrons on the structural and interface quality of superlattices are studied and discussed.

Using compound targets, superlattices with thickness ratio Γ = 0.3 and modulation periods Λ between 1 and 10 nm, and with Λ = 6 nm and thickness ratios between 0.2 to 0.8 were synthesized at the optimum sputter gas pressure of pAr = 4 mTorr and a substrate temperature of 600 °C. It is found that superlattices with Λ = 6 nm and Γ in the range of 0.2-0.4 exhibit the highest structural quality. However, B segregation in the over-stoichiometric TiBy layers (y > 2), grown from TiB2 compound target, results in narrow epitaxial superlattice columnar growth with structurally distorted B-rich boundaries. By co-sputtering from Ti and TiB2 targets, y could be reduced from 3.3 to 0.9 in TiBy layers through controlling the relative applied target power. Co-sputtered TiBy single layers and superlattices were grown at substrate temperatures between 600 and 900 °C. 300-nm-thick TiB2.3 single layers grown at 750 °C exhibited epitaxial domains about 10x larger than non-co-sputtered films.A significant enhancement for close-tostoichiometry CrB1.7/TiB2.3 superlattices with modulation periods Λ = 6 nm was achieved at 750 °C. X-ray diffraction, time of flight elastic recoil detection analysis, scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and nano-indentation are used for characterization.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2024. s. 44
Serie
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Licentiate Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1984
Nationell ämneskategori
Nanoteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-200163 (URN)10.3384/9789180755498 (DOI)9789180755153 (ISBN)9789180755498 (ISBN)
Presentation
2024-02-02, Planck, F Building, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning

Funding agencies: The Swedish National Graduate School in Neutron Scattering (SwedNess) through the grant by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) GSn15 - 0008, Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials (AFM) at Linköping University (Faculty Grant SFO Mat LiU No. 2009 00971), student grants from the center in Nanoscience and Technology at LiTH CeNano 2021 and 2022, ÅForsk 2022, Lars Hiertas Minne 2022, and scholarship from Society of Vacuum Coaters Foundation (SVCF) 2023

Tillgänglig från: 2024-01-12 Skapad: 2024-01-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-02-06Bibliografiskt granskad

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