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NetGAP: A graph grammar approach for concept design of networked platforms with extra-functional requirements
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1485-0802
2024 (English)In: Engineering applications of artificial intelligence, ISSN 0952-1976, E-ISSN 1873-6769, Vol. 133, article id 108089Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During the concept design of complex networked systems, concept developers have to ensure that the choice of hardware modules and the topology of the target platform will provide adequate resources to support the needs of the application. For example, future -generation aerospace systems need to consider multiple requirements, with many trade-offs, foreseeing rapid technological change and a long period for realization and service. For that purpose, we introduce NetGAP, an automated 3 -phase approach to synthesize network topologies and support the exploration and concept design of networked systems with multiple requirements including dependability, security, and performance. NetGAP represents the possible interconnections between hardware modules using a graph grammar and uses a Monte Carlo Tree Search optimization to generate candidate topologies from the grammar while aiming to satisfy the requirements. We apply the proposed approach to a synthetic version of a realistic avionics application use case. It includes 99 processes and 660 messages. The experiment shows the merits of the solution to support the early -stage exploration of alternative candidate topologies. The method vividly characterizes the topology -related trade-offs between requirements stemming from security, fault tolerance, timeliness, and the "cost'' of adding new modules or links. We also create a scaled -up version of the problem (267 processes, 1887 messages) to illustrate scalability. Finally, we discuss the flexibility of using the approach when changes in the application and its requirements occur.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD , 2024. Vol. 133, article id 108089
Keywords [en]
Concept design; Design space exploration; Resource allocation; Requirements analysis; Topology generation
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-202467DOI: 10.1016/j.engappai.2024.108089ISI: 001195523300001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-202467DiVA, id: diva2:1851565
Note

Funding Agencies|Sweden's Innovation Agency - Vinnova [2017-04890, 2023-01183]

Available from: 2024-04-15 Created: 2024-04-15 Last updated: 2024-04-30
In thesis
1. Exploring Trade-offs in Concept Design of Integrated Modular Avionic Platform Configurations: Topology Generation, Resource Adequacy, and Dependability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring Trade-offs in Concept Design of Integrated Modular Avionic Platform Configurations: Topology Generation, Resource Adequacy, and Dependability
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Modern aircraft heavily depend on computer systems to carry out various tasks. From managing flight surfaces and engines to processing radar and imagery data and facilitating communication with other aircraft and ground stations, computers are involved in almost every aspect of an aircraft’s operation. These computer systems, known as Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) systems, have long life cycles that span several decades and undergo regular updates. Despite this, a significant portion of the overall life cycle costs is determined very early in the life cycle, in the concept design phase. 

While the early concept stage provides the best opportunity to influence the design of the system and its future costs, it is also the stage where information about the system is most limited. During this early stage, selecting a suitable IMA platform configuration must ensure sufficient resources for the intended aircraft functionalities, particularly in computing and networking capabilities. Additionally, the decisions regarding safety and security measures must align with application requirements. However, this is a complex task due to conflicting requirements, necessitating compromises, and the limited information available at this early stage. 

This thesis explores the analysis and generation of avionic architecture configurations during the concept stage, addressing the problem on two fronts. The first focuses on verifying whether a chosen IMA platform configuration provides sufficient resources to ensure timely communication for a specified set of avionic applications. The second centers on exploring the conceptual design space to find IMA platform configurations aligned with computing, networking, fault-tolerance, and security application needs. 

To contribute to the problem’s verification aspect, this thesis introduces two high-level abstractions, namely timed automata and a domain-specific model based on Unified Modelling Languages (UML), to model IMA systems at the concept stage. These are designed to capture inter-process message ex-changes within networked IMA platforms. Additionally, we propose a workflow and a supporting tool explicitly designed to translate our proposed model into a network calculus model for further analysis. The approach’s practicality and scalability are showcased through its application to an avionics use case. 

In exploring conceptual design space, this thesis proposes NetGAP, a domain-specific method in which interconnection patterns in generic networked system topologies are represented as graph grammars. Combined with Monte Carlo Tree Search and genetic algorithms, these grammars are used to navigate the solution space and generate candidate IMA platform configurations tailored to the requirements of an envisaged application. Through application to an avionics use case, NetGAP is shown to be scalable and suitable for different types of requirements. To further expedite the process, NetGAP has evolved into NeuralGAP. The latter employs graph neural networks to assess network topology compatibility with the target application, accelerating the concept exploration and improving its results.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2024. p. 67
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 2384
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-203166 (URN)10.3384/9789180756143 (DOI)9789180756136 (ISBN)9789180756143 (ISBN)
Public defence
2024-06-05, Key 1, Key-building, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Vinnova, NFFP7 2017-04890; 2023-01183
Available from: 2024-04-30 Created: 2024-04-30 Last updated: 2024-05-24Bibliographically approved

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