liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Health effects and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and metals in a contaminated community
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Work and Environmental Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8234-5461
2012 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 44, p. 53-58Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Environmental measurements carried out by local authorities during the 1970s, 80s and 90s in an area contaminated by hundreds of years of industrial activities have revealed high levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in soil, vegetables, root crops, berries and mushrooms. In 1972, a large quantity of oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was accidentally spilled into the river running through the village. To investigate the possible health effects of exposure from local sources, all cancer diagnoses, registered in 1960-2003 for individuals living in the study area, were collected from the regional cancer register of southeast Sweden. The total cancer incidence was non-significantly decreased both among males and females as compared to national rates (SIR = 0.91) for each gender. Among males, increased risks, of border-line significance, were seen for testicular cancer and lymphomas as well as significantly decreased risks for cancer in the rectum, respiratory system and brain. Information on lifetime residence, occupation, smoking habits, diseases, childbirth and food consumption, was collected via questionnaires from cancer cases and randomly selected controls. In both genders combined, significant associations were found for total cancer and high consumption of local perch, and for lymphomas and high consumption of both perch and pikeperch. Female breast cancer was significantly associated with high consumption of local perch and pike as well as with work in metal production. Mothers residing in the parish before the age of five reported significantly more preterm child deliveries. In spite of study limitations, the results indicate that residing in a rural contaminated area may contribute to the development of certain cancers and reproductive effects. In females, high consumption of local fish was shown to be the strongest determinant for total cancer, while in males, the strongest determinant was residing in the study area the first five years of life. Further research including validation of exposure using biomarkers is required to verify the findings as well as future studies in other polluted areas in Sweden with larger population bases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier , 2012. Vol. 44, p. 53-58
Keywords [en]
Contaminated area, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Heavy metals, Cancer, Reproduction
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-79086DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2012.01.009ISI: 000304745900007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-79086DiVA, id: diva2:538281
Note

Funding Agencies|Cancer and Allergy Fund, Sweden||

Available from: 2012-06-29 Created: 2012-06-29 Last updated: 2019-10-31
In thesis
1. Exposure and body burden of environmental pollution and risk of cancer in a historically contaminated areas
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure and body burden of environmental pollution and risk of cancer in a historically contaminated areas
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There are many villages where environmental contamination is substantial due to historical industrial activities. According to the European Environment Agency, there are about 2.5 million potentially contaminated sites in the European member states. In Sweden, there are about 80 000 more or less contaminated areas. About 1000 of them are classified into the highest risk category, Hazard Class 1, and should be remediated. Population exposure due to these industrially contaminated sites may contribute to adverse health effects and is a global environmental problem.

The general aim of this thesis was to evaluate the occurrence of cancer in populations residing in contaminated areas in relation to indirect exposure via the long-term consumption of locally produced food, taking into account residential, occupational and lifestyle factors. Associations between reported local food consumption frequencies, biomarker concentrations and environmental and lifestyle factors were explored. The Swedish national cancer registers and questionnaire information was used to identify cancer risk groups in the study population. The questionnaire was evaluated regarding how well it reflected measured levels of biomarkers in human biological samples, and how the consumption of local food from contaminated areas contributed to the total body burden of contaminants.

Despite historically high environmental levels of contaminants in the soil and sediments, current contaminant exposure in the studied population living in the contaminated areas was similar to or only moderately higher than that of the general population.

No significant associations with increased cancer risk were detected in the highest tertile of metals concentrations in blood or PAH in urine.

Reported long-term high consumption of certain local foods was associated with higher cadmium (vegetarian food) and lead (fish, meat) concentrations in blood and urine. Long-term high consumption of non-local food from places outside the study areas was not associated with increased concentrations of metals compared with consumers of local food. It was concluded that the questionnaire information on consumption of locally produced food describes differences in food consumption in the study population reasonably well.

An increased risk of cancer was associated with smoking, family history of cancer and obesity. Residing in a contaminated area during the first five years of life was associated with an increased risk of cancer, which may indicate exposure to contaminants in early life. Also, long-term high consumption of particular local foods (fish, chicken, lamb, game meat) was associated with an increased risk of various forms of cancer, while reported high consumption of these foods from non-local sources was not associated with increased risk of cancer. The associations between habitual consumption of local food and different types of cancer may reflect a higher exposure in the past, and thus, if consumption of local food contributes to the risk of acquiring cancer, that contribution is probably lower today than previously. Furthermore, it cannot be ruled out that other contaminants in the food contribute to the increased cancer risks observed.

In conclusion, the questionnaire that was developed for the present thesis can identify risk groups within populations and can be used as a tool in a health-risk assessment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019. p. 69
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1699
Keywords
Contaminated area, cancer, exposure, metals, POPs, Consumption of local food
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160957 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-160957 (DOI)9789176850060 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-11-22, Birgittasalen, Universitetssjukhuset, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-10-17 Created: 2019-10-16 Last updated: 2019-12-11Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text in DiVA

Other links

Publisher's full text

Authority records BETA

Helmfrid, IngelaWingren, Gun

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Helmfrid, IngelaWingren, Gun
By organisation
Department of Clinical and Experimental MedicineFaculty of Health SciencesOccupational and Environmental Medicine CentreWork and Environmental Science
In the same journal
Environment International
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 231 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf