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Inhibitory effect of opiates on LPS mediated release of TNF and IL-8
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk farmakologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Onkologiska kliniken US.
Vise andre og tillknytning
2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 52, nr 5, s. 1022-1033Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Most patients with advanced cancer experience severe pain and are often treated with opiates. Cancer patients are especially susceptible to opportunistic infections due to treatment with immunosuppressive and cytostatic drugs. Since opiates have been demonstrated to have immunomodulatory effects, it is of clinical importance to evaluate potential differences between commonly used opiates with regard to their effect on the immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of morphine, tramadol, fentanyl and ketobemidone on the functioning of the immune system with special reference to TNF and IL-8 release. Method. U-937 cells were preincubated with different concentrations of opioids followed by stimulation with LPS 100 μg/ml for three hours. The effect of opioids on the levels of cytokine mRNA was studied using RT-PCR. Erk and Akt phosphorylation was also measured by Western blot. Results. All opioids with the exception of fentanyl were capable of inhibiting TNF release from U-937 cells. Morphine had no effect on IL-8 release but the effect of other opiates was almost the same as the effect on TNF. All opioids with the exception of fentanyl were capable of inhibiting production of mRNA for TNF and IL-8. The observed effects of opiates were not always reversible by naloxone, suggesting that the effects might be mediated by other receptors or through a non-receptor mediated direct effect. Although preliminary evidence suggests the involvement of Erk and Akt pathways, further studies are needed to unravel the intracellular pathways involved in mediating the effects of opiates. Our data suggests that the order of potency with regard to inhibition of cytokine release is as follows: tramadol > ketobemidone > morphine > fentanyl. Conclusion. Further studies are needed to understand the clinical implications of the observed immunosuppressive effects of tramadol and ketobemidone and to improve opioid treatment strategies in patients with cancer.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Informa Healthcare, 2013. Vol. 52, nr 5, s. 1022-1033
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-89960DOI: 10.3109/0284186X.2012.737932PubMedID: 23145506OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-89960DiVA, id: diva2:610593
Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-03-12 Laget: 2013-03-12 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06
Inngår i avhandling
1. Practical and clinical use of opioids
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Practical and clinical use of opioids
2013 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Pain is a common symptom of a number of conditions including cancer and one of the most frequent reasons for seeking healthcare. Acute and chronic pain result in considerable discomfort with a detrimental impact on the quality of life. Opioids are the mainstay of pain management for many patients with severe pain. Opioids are, unfortunately, also commonly abused drugs, and are well-represented in forensic toxicology investigations.

Side effects related to the central nervous system are the major reasons fordiscontinuation of opioid treatment. In this thesis, we tested the hypothesis that local analgesic treatment by opioids, without the usual opioid-related side effects, could be a potential alternative to systemic opioid treatment. We examined the analgesic effect of topically applied morphine in a randomized, double blind, cross over study in patients with painful leg ulcers. Significant reduction of pain was obtained after application of both morphine and placebo gel. Morphine reduced pain more than placebo but the difference was not statistically significant. However, morphine could reduce pain considerably more than placebo in those cases where VAS (Visual analog scale) was higher initially.

Another issue with opioid therapy is the substantial individual variability in response to opioids including morphine and tramadol. We investigated the significance of UGT2B7, CYP2D6, OPRM1 and ABCB1 polymorphisms for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of morphine and tramadol. We showed that genetic variants in CYP2D6 and UGT2B7 have an important role in the metabolism of tramadol and morphine respectively. While the role of SNPs in ABCB1 remained unclear, genetic variants in OPRM1 gene were correlated with the required dose of morphine. Taken together, these findings suggest that genotypes should be taken into consideration when interpreting clinical pharmacology and forensic toxicology results.

Opioids, besides their analgesic properties, have other pharmacological effects including effects on immune system. We evaluated potential differences between commonly used opiates with regard to their effect on the immune system. We found an inhibition of cytokine release, in the order of potency as follows: tramadol > ketobemidone >morphine >fentanyl. All opioids with the exception of fentanyl were capable of inhibiting production of mRNAs for TNF-alpha and IL-8. Further studies are needed to understand the clinical implications of the observed immunosuppressive effects of opioids and to improve opioid treatment strategies in patients with cancer.

Here, we have found that individual genotype matters and affects the individual response. Further research is warranted to tailor individualized treatment. Personalized medicine has increased in importance and will hopefully in the near future become standard procedure to improve and predict the outcome of treatment by opioids.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. s. 72
Serie
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1364
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96795 (URN)978-91-7519-603-9 (ISBN)
Disputas
2013-09-13, Berzeliussalen,, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Merknad

The series name in the title page is incorret. The correct title should be Linköping University Medical Dissertations.

Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-08-27 Laget: 2013-08-27 Sist oppdatert: 2019-12-08bibliografisk kontrollert

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