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Professionals' experiences of imaging in the radiography process – A phenomenological approach
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. (Medicinsk pedagogik)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5066-8728
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2014 (English)In: Radiography, ISSN 1078-8174, E-ISSN 1532-2831, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 48-52Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction

Previous studies on radiographers' professional work have shown that this practice covers both technology and patient care. How these two competence areas blend together in practice needs to be investigated. The professionals' experiences of their work have not been studied in depth, and there is a need to focus on their experiences of the main features of their practice.

The aim

To explore, from the perspective of the radiographer, the general tasks and responsibilities of their work.

Method

Data were generated through a combination of open interviews with radiographers and observations of their work with Computer Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The interviews and observations were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological method.

Result

Radiographers' professional work with diagnostic imaging, in a Swedish context, can be viewed as a problem-solving process involving judgments and responsibility for obtaining images that can be used for diagnosis. The examination process comprises three phases; planning, producing the images, and evaluation. In the first phase the radiographer makes judgments on adapting the method to the individual patient, and the second phase involves responsibilities and practical skills for image production. In the third phase, the quality of the images is judged in relation to the actual patient and the imaging process itself.

Conclusions

Radiographers consider that the main features of their professional work are patient safety aspects and their knowledge and skills regarding how to produce images of optimal quality, in the actual circumstances of each examination.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014. Vol. 20, no 1, p. 48-52
Keywords [en]
Radiography process, Radiographer, Phenomenology, Diagnostic radiography
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103181DOI: 10.1016/j.radi.2013.10.002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84891740515OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-103181DiVA, id: diva2:687462
Available from: 2014-01-14 Created: 2014-01-14 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Radiographers’ professional practice: a Swedish perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Radiographers’ professional practice: a Swedish perspective
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The general aim of this thesis was to empirically describe the radiographers’ professional scope in diagnostic imaging from the viewpoint of the practitioners and investigate how technical development affects the relations and actions in this practice.

Data was collected by interviews and observations to both studies at the same time with two different aims. Eight radiographers (n=8) were interviewed. The interviews were open in character, were recorded with a digital voice recorder, and transcribed verbatim by the interviewer. The interview guide consisted of four interview questions. The observations of radiographers during their work with Computer Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) were conducted in a middle-sized radiology department in the southern part of Sweden. The observations were ten (n=10) in total.

Two different theoretical perspectives were used: phenomenology (Study I) and practice theory perspective (Study II). Data was analysed with a phenomenological method in Study I. In Study II data was firstly analysed inductively, which resulted in seven codes. Secondly, abduction was made by interpretation of these codes from a practice theory perspective. This led to four themes.

The findings in Study I display the main aspect of the radiographers’ work with image production. Their general tasks and responsibilities can be viewed as a process with the goal of producing images that can be used for diagnosis purposes. The process has three different phases: planning the examination, production of images, and evaluation of the image quality. The radiographers experience the production of images as their autonomous professional area.

The findings in Study II report how technology development affects the relations between different actors and their actions in the practice of Computer Tomography. Four themes were identified; 1) Changed materiality makes the practical action easier. Radiographers’ practica work with image production has become easier when working with CT  compared to conventional techniques because the CT usually performs the image production in one scan. 2) Changed machines cause conflict between the arrangements of the work and the patients` needs. It is difficult to plan the examination individually for each patient because of the arrangements of the CT practice, i.e. they have little information about the patient before the examination. 3) Changing materiality prefigures learning. The radiographers describe a need for constant learning activities because of the changing procedures for image production and new modalities for image production. If not achieved it may affect their relations with the patients. 4) How the connections between different practices lead to times when practical reasoning is required in the radiography process with CT. The connections between the different professions in CT practice mainly occur through material arrangements because physically they work in different areas. The external arrangements in CT practice pre-figure actions for securing accurate radiation level and image quality. But the radiographers, who meet the patients, have to critically judge the intended actions in relation to clinical observed data to ensure patient safety.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. p. 43
Series
Linköping Studies in Health Sciences. Thesis, ISSN 1100-6013 ; 129
Keywords
Radiographer, radiography, practice, technical development, phenomenology, practice theory, patient safety
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111722 (URN)10.3384/lic.diva-111722 (DOI)978-91-7519-277-2 (ISBN)
Presentation
2014-11-25, Hagdahl, plan 10, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 09:00 (Swedish)
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-10-29 Created: 2014-10-29 Last updated: 2015-04-01Bibliographically approved
2. Radiography in Practice: Work and Learning in Medical Imaging
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Radiography in Practice: Work and Learning in Medical Imaging
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Those following the profession of radiographer mainly work in the healthcare sector, with image production in medical imaging or with radiotherapy treatments. Radiographers are responsible for patient care and handling technology in this profession al field. Radiographers’ practice is interesting to study in relation to technical developments and changing conditions for performing professional work.

The general aim of this thesis was to empirically explore the main features of radiographers’ work, how advances in tech n ology affect radiographers’ practice, interconnections with other practices and students learn in g in practice on the way to becoming professionals.

Methods: Data was collected using interviews and observations (Papers I, II & IV). For Paper III, individual interviews were conducted. Data was analysed using a phenomenological interpretative method (Paper I) and practice theory perspective (Papers II–IV).

Findings: Radiographers’ professional work with image production was seen as a process comprising three phases: planning the examination, producing the images, and evaluating the images. During this process, radiographers make judgements to ensure patient safety and adapt the technology in use to the individual patient. When conventional imaging techniques are converted into examinations performed by Computer Tomography, the planning phase of radiographers’ work process becomes more important. Technology improvements also mean that the technical aspects of radiographers’ work with image production are easier to foresee in scheduling examinations. The caring aspects however are difficult to plan for because of little information about the patient before the examination. The professional practices involved in medical imaging interconnect to ensure patient safety through materiality and common tasks and/ or projects. The content and quality of two artefacts, the referral and the image, in these interconnections are important in collaborative work to ensure patient safety within medical imaging. Radiography students learn professional knowing in practice i.e. practice-as-work, practice-as language and practice-as-morality, during their clinical placements through alternating between two modes of participation: either observing and listening or acting by themselves. The students developed knowing in practice if the other practitioners allowed them to alternate between these two modes of participation.

Implications: The description of radiographers’ general tasks an d responsibilities in a work process can be used for both educational and professionalization purposes. The identified interconnections between involved professions are useful for quality improvement to secure patient safety. The findings about development of knowing in practice can be used in the planning and evaluation of clinical placements for students.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019. p. 63
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1664
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154931 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-154931 (DOI)9789176851258 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-03-29, Hasselquistsalen, Campus US, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-03-06 Created: 2019-03-06 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved

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Lundvall, Lise-LottAbrandt Dahlgren, MadeleineWirell, Staffan

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