liu.seSök publikationer i DiVA
Ändra sökning
RefereraExporteraLänk till posten
Permanent länk

Direktlänk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Characterization of Two-Dimensional Titanium Metal Carbides (MXenes)
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Department of Materials Science & Engineering and 3A.J. Drexel Nanotechnology Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, USA.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-7502-1215
University of Penn, PA 19104 USA Drexel University, PA 19104 USA .
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. University of Penn, PA 19104 USA .ORCID-id: 0000-0002-0317-0190
Visa övriga samt affilieringar
2014 (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Herein, we report X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis for cold pressed exfoliated 2D nanocrystals of transition metal carbides, MXenes. MXenes are a recently discovered family of 2D materials produced by selective chemical etching of the A element from MAX phases which are ternary metal carbides and nitrides. The latter has the formula of Mn+1AXn, where M is an early transition metal, A is an A-group element, and X is C and/or N. This study is a comparison between two MXenes, Ti3C2Tx and Ti2CTx, where Tx stands for surface termination groups such as –O, –OH, and –F. Ti3C2Tx and Ti2CTx were prepared by immersion of Ti3AlC2 and Ti2AlC powders in 50% conc. HF. A thorough XPS analysis was performed through peak fitting of high resolution XPS spectra and valence band, VB, spectra analysis. The effect of Ar sputtering as well as the number of layers n was the primarily interest of this study. According to the peak fitting analysis, both phases contain the following species, Ti–C, C–C, Ti–F, Ti–O and Ti–OH resulting in the following chemical formulas: Ti3C2(OH)x(O)y(F)z and Ti2C(OH)x(O)y(F)z. Comparing the VB spectra with the DOS calculations show the valance band spectra is actually a mixture of MXene with various terminations of OH, O and F. Before Ar+ sputtering both phases show a large percentage of fluorinated-TiO2 which is due to MXene surface oxidation as well as CHx, C-O and COO groups arising from either surface contaminations or due to drying the etched powders in ethanol after washing the powder of the HF acid. According to the VB spectra, it is shown that the fluorinated TiO2 is actually a mixture of anatase and rutile. The number of layers, n, also plays a role; the lower n, the more the MXene is prone to oxidation.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2014.
Nationell ämneskategori
Fysikalisk kemi Kemi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111127OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-111127DiVA, id: diva2:753522
Tillgänglig från: 2014-10-08 Skapad: 2014-10-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-28Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Synthesis and Characterization of 2D Nanocrystals and Thin Films of Transition Metal Carbides (MXenes)
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Synthesis and Characterization of 2D Nanocrystals and Thin Films of Transition Metal Carbides (MXenes)
2014 (Engelska)Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Two dimensional (2D) materials have received growing interest because of their unique properties compared to their bulk counterparts. Graphene is the archetype 2D solid, but other materials beyond graphene, such as MoS2 and BN have become potential candidates for several applications. Recently, a new family of 2D materials of early transition metal carbides and carbonitrides (Ti2CTx, Ti3C2Tx, Ti3CNTx, Ta4C3Tx, and more), labelled MXenes, has been discovered, where T stands for the surface-terminating groups.

Before the present work, MXenes had only been synthesized in the form of exfoliated and delaminated powders, which is not suitable for electronic applications. In this thesis, I demonstrate the synthesis of MXenes as epitaxial thin films, a more suitable form for electronic and photonic applications. Results show that 2D epitaxial Ti3C2Tx films - produced by HF and NH4HF2 etching of magnetron sputter-grown Ti3AlC2 - exhibit metallic conductive behaviour down to 100 K and are 90% transparent to light in the visible-infrared range. The results from this work may open the door for MXenes as potential candidates for transparent conductive electrodes as well as in electronic, photonic and sensing applications.

MXenes have been shown to intercalate cations and molecules between their layers that in turn can alter the surface termination groups. There is therefore a need to study the surface chemistries of synthetized MXenes to be able to study the effect of intercalation as well as altering the surface termination groups on the electronic structure and chemical states of the elements present in MXene layers. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) in-depth characterization was used to investigate surface chemistries of Ti3C2Tx and Ti2CTx. This thesis includes the discussion of the effect of Ar+ sputtering and the number of layers on the surface chemistry of MXenes. This study serves as a baseline for chemical modification and tailoring of the surface chemistry groups to potential uses and applications.

New MXene phases, Nb2CTx and V2CTx, are shown in this thesis to be produced from HF chemical etching of Nb2AlC and V2AlC powders. Characterization of the produced MXenes was carried out using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and XPS. Nb2CTx and V2CTx showed promising performance as electrodes for Li-ion batteries.

In this thesis, electrochemical etching was used in an attempt to produce 2D metal carbides (MXene) from their ternary metal carbides, Ti3SiC2, Ti3AlC2 and Ti2AlC MAX phases. MAX phases in the form of highly dense bulk produced by Hot Isostatic Press. Several etching solutions were used such as HF, NaCl and HCl. Unlike the HF chemical etching of MAX phases, which results in MXenes, the electrochemical etching resulted in Carbide Derived Carbon (CDC). Here, I show the characterization of the produced CDC using several techniques such as XRD, TEM, Raman spectroscopy, and XPS. Electrochemical characterization was performed in the form of cyclic voltammetry, which sheds light on the etching mechanism.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. s. 41
Serie
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1679
Nationell ämneskategori
Materialkemi Oorganisk kemi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111128 (URN)10.3384/lic.diva-111128 (DOI)978-91-7519-225-3 (ISBN)
Presentation
2014-10-24, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning

The series name Linköping Studies in Science and Technology Licentiate Thesis in this publication is incorrect. Correct name is Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis.

Tillgänglig från: 2014-10-08 Skapad: 2014-10-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-28Bibliografiskt granskad

Open Access i DiVA

Fulltext saknas i DiVA

Personposter BETA

Halim, JosephNäslund, Lars-ÅkeMagnuson, MartinHultman, LarsEklund, PerRosén, JohannaBarsoum, Michel W.

Sök vidare i DiVA

Av författaren/redaktören
Halim, JosephNäslund, Lars-ÅkeMagnuson, MartinHultman, LarsEklund, PerRosén, JohannaBarsoum, Michel W.
Av organisationen
TunnfilmsfysikTekniska högskolan
Fysikalisk kemiKemi

Sök vidare utanför DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

urn-nbn

Altmetricpoäng

urn-nbn
Totalt: 1817 träffar
RefereraExporteraLänk till posten
Permanent länk

Direktlänk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf