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Simultaneous three-dimensional myocardial T1 and T2 mapping in one breath hold with 3D-QALAS
Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. (CMIV)
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping. (CMIV)
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping. (CMIV)
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2198-9690
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, ISSN 1097-6647, E-ISSN 1532-429X, Vol. 16, no 102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Quantification of the longitudinal- and transverse relaxation time in the myocardium has shown to provide important information in cardiac diagnostics. Methods for cardiac relaxation time mapping generally demand a long breath hold to measure either T1 or T2 in a single 2D slice. In this paper we present and evaluate a novel method for 3D interleaved T1 and T2 mapping of the whole left ventricular myocardium within a single breath hold of 15 heartbeats.

METHODS: The 3D-QALAS (3D-quantification using an interleaved Look-Locker acquisition sequence with T2 preparation pulse) is based on a 3D spoiled Turbo Field Echo sequence using inversion recovery with interleaved T2 preparation. Quantification of both T1 and T2 in a volume of 13 slices with a resolution of 2.0x2.0x6.0 mm is obtained from five measurements by using simulations of the longitudinal magnetizations Mz. This acquisition scheme is repeated three times to sample k-space. The method was evaluated both in-vitro (validated against Inversion Recovery and Multi Echo) and in-vivo (validated against MOLLI and Dual Echo).

RESULTS: In-vitro, a strong relation was found between 3D-QALAS and Inversion Recovery (R = 0.998; N = 10; p < 0.01) and between 3D-QALAS and Multi Echo (R = 0.996; N = 10; p < 0.01). The 3D-QALAS method showed no dependence on e.g. heart rate in the interval of 40-120 bpm. In healthy myocardium, the mean T1 value was 1083 ± 43 ms (mean ± SD) for 3D-QALAS and 1089 ± 54 ms for MOLLI, while the mean T2 value was 50.4 ± 3.6 ms 3D-QALAS and 50.3 ± 3.5 ms for Dual Echo. No significant difference in in-vivo relaxation times was found between 3D-QALAS and MOLLI (N = 10; p = 0.65) respectively 3D-QALAS and Dual Echo (N = 10; p = 0.925) for the ten healthy volunteers.

CONCLUSIONS: The 3D-QALAS method has demonstrated good accuracy and intra-scan variability both in-vitro and in-vivo. It allows rapid acquisition and provides quantitative information of both T1 and T2 relaxation times in the same scan with full coverage of the left ventricle, enabling clinical application in a broader spectrum of cardiac disorders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 16, no 102
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113398DOI: 10.1186/s12968-014-0102-0ISI: 000349944300001PubMedID: 25526880OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-113398DiVA, id: diva2:781617
Available from: 2015-01-17 Created: 2015-01-17 Last updated: 2018-10-29
In thesis
1. Myocardial Tissue Characterization Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Myocardial Tissue Characterization Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In cardiovascular disease, which is the most common cause of death in the world, early diagnosis is crucial for disease outcome. Diagnosis of cardiovascular disease can be challenging, though. Quantification of myocardial T1 and T2 relaxation times with MRI has demonstrated to be a promising method for characterizing myocardial tissue, but long measurement times have hampered clinical use. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis was to develop, validate and, in patient studies, evaluate a very fast three-dimensional method for simultaneous quantification of myocardial T1 and T2 relaxation times with whole coverage of the left ventricle.

The 3D-QALAS method is presented in Paper I of this thesis. It is a method that simultaneous measures both T1 and T2 relaxation times in a three-dimensional volume of the heart. The method requires 15 heartbeats, to produce 13 short-axis slices of the left ventricle with voxelwise information of both T1 and T2 relaxation times. The 3D-QALAS method was validated in phantoms and in 10 healthy volunteers by comparing the method with reference methods and demonstrated good accuracy and robustness both in-vitro and in-vivo.

In Paper II, the 3D-QALAS method was carefully validated in-vivo by investigating accuracy and precision in 10 healthy volunteers, while the clinical feasibility of the method was investigated in 23 patients with various cardiac pathologies. Repeated independent and dependent scans together with the intra-scan repeatability, demonstrated all a very good precision for the 3D-QALAS method in healthy volunteers.

In Paper III and IV, the 3D-QALAS method was applied and evaluated in patient cohorts where the heart muscle alters over time. In Paper III, patients with severe aortic stenosis underwent MRI examinations with 3D-QALAS before, 3 months after and 12 months after aortic valve surgery. Changes in T1 and T2 were observed, which might be used as markers of myocardial changes with respect to edema and fibrosis, which may develop due to increased workload over a long period of time.

In study IV, 3D-QALAS was used to investigate 10 breast cancer patients treated with radiation therapy prior to treatment, 2-3 weeks into treatment, and one and 6 months after completion of treatment, to investigate any changes in T1 and T2 and further if they can be correlated to unwanted irradiation of the heart during radiation therapy.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018. p. 61
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1650
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152351 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-152351 (DOI)9789176851838 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-11-16, Hugo Theorell-salen, Campus US, Linköping, 09:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2018-10-29 Created: 2018-10-29 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved

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