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Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology: a longitudinal study
Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Folke Bernadotte Regional Habilitation Centre and Department of Women´s and Children´s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi.
School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia / School of Occupational Therapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
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2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Assistive technology, ISSN 1040-0435, E-ISSN 1949-3614, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 93-102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) has the potential to provide children affected by severe physical impairments with opportunities for communication and activities. This study aimed to examine changes in eye gaze performance over time (time on task and accuracy) in children with severe physical impairments, without speaking ability, using gaze-based AT. A longitudinal study with an AB design was conducted on ten children (aged 1–15 years) with severe physical impairments, who were beginners to gaze-based AT at baseline. Thereafter, all children used the gaze-based AT in daily activities over the course of the study. Compass computer software was used to measure time on task and accuracy with eye selection of targets on screen, and tests were performed with the children at baseline, after 5 months, 9–11 months, and after 15–20 months. Findings showed that the children improved in time on task after 5 months and became more accurate in selecting targets after 15–20 months. This study indicates that these children with severe physical impairments, who were unable to speak, could improve in eye gaze performance. However, the children needed time to practice on a long-term basis to acquire skills needed to develop fast and accurate eye gaze performance.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2016. Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 93-102
Nyckelord [en]
assistive devices, computer access, physical disability
Nationell ämneskategori
Pediatrik Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123301DOI: 10.1080/10400435.2015.1092182ISI: 000376031400004PubMedID: 26496529OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-123301DiVA, id: diva2:881252
Anmärkning

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council; Stiftelsen Sunnerdahls Handikappfond; Jimmy Dahlstens Fond

Tillgänglig från: 2015-12-10 Skapad: 2015-12-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-03-17Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. The impact of gaze-based assistive technology on daily activities in children with severe physical impairments
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The impact of gaze-based assistive technology on daily activities in children with severe physical impairments
2016 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Aim: The aim of the thesis was to investigate the impact of gaze-based assistive technology on daily activities in children with severe physical impairments and without speech. The objectives were to develop and pilot a gaze-based assistive technology intervention (GAT intervention) at home and in school for these children and to understand its impact on daily activities as experienced by their parents.

Methods: Study I was a pilot study in which the basic components that were developed for the intervention were evaluated for students with physical impairments. The study aimed at improving the use of computers as assistive technology (AT) in school. Based on the findings in Study I, the GAT intervention was developed. The GAT intervention aimed at implementing gaze-based AT in daily activities. It consisted of two parts; having access to gaze-based AT and having access to services from a multi professional communication team during nine to ten months. Studies II-IV concerned gazebased AT for children with severe physical impairments without speech who participated in the GAT intervention. The participants were ten children (ages 1-15) (Studies II, III), and their parents (Study IV). Studies II and III had longitudinal designs and children were followed during 15-20 months with repeated measurements before, after and at follow-up. In Study II children’s repertoire of computer activities, extent of use, and goal attainment with gaze-based AT was evaluated, as well as parents’ satisfaction with the AT and with services. In Study III children’s eye gaze performance when using gaze-based AT was examined. In Study IV, parents were interviewed twice with the aim of  exploring their experiences of children’s gaze-based AT use in daily life. In Study IV a hermeneutical approach was used.

Results: The findings of Study I showed that the basic components of intervention improved the use of computers in school. Study II showed an increased repertoire of computer activities with the gazebased AT, maintained use in daily activities for all at follow up, and that all children attained goals for gaze-based AT use in daily activities. Parents were satisfied with the gaze-based AT, and with the services in the GAT intervention. In study III, nine children improved in eye gaze performance over time when using the gaze-based AT in daily activities. Study IV revealed that children’s gaze-based AT usage in daily activities made a difference to parents since the children demonstrated agency, and showed their personality and competencies by using gaze-based AT, and for the parents this opened up infinite possibilities for the child to do and learn things. Overall, children’s gaze-based AT usage provided parents with hope of a future in which their children could develop and have influence in life.

Conclusions: This thesis shows that these children with severe physical impairments and without speech acquired sufficient gaze control skills to use gaze-based AT for daily activities in the home and at school. The gaze-based AT had a positive impact on performing activities, for example, play activities and communication- and interaction-related activities. For the parents, children’s gaze-based AT usage made a difference since it shaped a hope of a better future for their children, where they can develop and gain influence in their future life. Furthermore, the children continued to perform daily activities with gaze-based AT over time. This finding suggests that key persons were provided with sufficient knowledge and skills to support children in maintained use of gaze-based AT after withdrawal of the services provided in the GAT intervention.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. s. 93
Serie
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1490
Nyckelord
Cerebral palsy, computer activities, daily activities, eye gaze control, self-help devices
Nationell ämneskategori
Sjukgymnastik Arbetsmedicin och miljömedicin
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123303 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-123303 (DOI)978-91-7685-913-1 (ISBN)
Disputation
2016-01-15, K1, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Norrköping, 13:00 (Svenska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2015-12-10 Skapad: 2015-12-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-10-29Bibliografiskt granskad

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Borgestig, MariaSandqvist, JanFalkmer, TorbjörnHemmingsson, Helena

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