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Markers of subsyndromal depression in very old persons.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Center of Palliative Care. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Department of Advanced Home Care in Norrköping.
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, ISSN 0885-6230, E-ISSN 1099-1166, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 619-628Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors associated with subsyndromal depression (SSD) in very old persons, and to develop a model for prediction of SSD among very old persons.

METHODS: A cross-sectional, population-based study was undertaken on 85-year-old persons in Sweden. Data were collected from a postal questionnaire, assessments in the participants' homes and at reception visits. Depressiveness was screened with GDS-15 (Geriatric Depression Scale), and the results were classified into three outcome categories: non-depression (ND), SSD and syndromal depression. Data were analysed with binary logistic, ordinal logistic and linear regression.

RESULTS: With univariate logistic regression 20 factors associated with SSD were identified in very old persons, and the four hypothesized domains-sociodemographic factors, declining physical functioning, neuropsychiatric factors and existential factors-significantly related to SSD. The multivariate logistic model included seven independent factors that increase the likelihood of SSD instead of ND (lower self-perceived health, life not meaningful, problems with self-care, use of tranquilizing medication, no contact with neighbours, history of affective disorder and history of stroke). The ordinal logistic and the linear regression models resulted in seven partly different factors for predicting SSD and depressiveness, in the very old.

CONCLUSIONS: The identified markers may help clinicians with the detection, prevention and treatment of SSD in very old persons. The findings indicate the importance of a comprehensive functional approach to diagnosing and treating depressiveness in this population, and the findings might be interpreted as offering support for the coexistence of a dimensional and a categorical view on depressive disorders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2016. Vol. 31, no 6, p. 619-628
National Category
Geriatrics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127480DOI: 10.1002/gps.4369ISI: 000374700000009PubMedID: 26489528OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-127480DiVA, id: diva2:924070
Note

Funding agencies: County Council of Ostergotland, Sweden

Available from: 2016-04-27 Created: 2016-04-27 Last updated: 2018-07-26
In thesis
1. Subsyndromal Depression in Very Old Persons
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Subsyndromal Depression in Very Old Persons
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Subsyndromal depression hos äldre äldre personer
Abstract [en]

Background: Subsyndromal depression (SSD) or subthreshold depression is a common affective condition that can be described as depressiveness below the threshold of what is called a syndromal or a major depressive episode. The point prevalence for SSD has been reported to be about 10% in the community, or about two or three times higher than the prevalence for syndromal depression. In elderly persons, SSD compared to non-depression (ND) is associated with impaired activities of daily living, lower cognitive function, lower self-perceived health, worse psychiatric outcomes and higher mortality. However, most studies on SSD in elderly persons have been done in the young old age group (age 60-80 years), while few studies have investigated SSD in very old persons (age 80+). As many aspects (e.g. multimorbidity, frailty, functional decline and social dependence) change between the young old and the very old ages, there is a need for more knowledge about SSD in the very old. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis was to describe SSD, or the complex area between syndromal depression and normal aging, in very old persons.

Method: Paper 1 was based on qualitative interviews (n=27), while papers 2-4 were based largely on data from a prospective observational cohort study “Elderly in Linköping Screening Assessment” (ELSA85), with a population-based design following the participants from the age of 85 in three waves of follow-up. The 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) was used for measuring depressiveness and to define SSD in the studies.

Results: The analysis of the qualitative interviews (paper 1) resulted in four themes (life curve and the body go down, to manage on one’s own, to keep up with life, and taking one day at a time), giving a comprehensive picture of SSD in very old age. In a comparison among SSD, ND and syndromal depression, SSD differed qualitatively from syndromal depression, but not clearly from ND. A cross-sectional analysis of data from baseline (paper 2) identified factors associated with SSD in very old persons, and according to analyses with multiple logistic and linear regressions, four domains (sociodemographic factors, declining physical functioning, neuropsychiatric factors, and existential factors) were significantly associated with SSD.

A five-year longitudinal follow-up (paper 3) showed that direct healthcare costs per month of survival for persons with SSD exceeded those of persons with ND by a ratio of 1.45 (€634 vs €436), a difference that was significant even after controlling for somatic multimorbidity.

An eight-year longitudinal follow-up (paper 4) showed that mortality was elevated (hazard ratio=1.33) for persons with SSD compared to ND, as were morbidity regarding basic ADL, IADL, loneliness, self-perceived health and depressiveness, whereas cognitive speed, executive functions and global cognitive function were not significantly impaired when adjusting for covariates.

Conclusion: SSD in very old persons has a different presentation in different persons, and healthcare personnel should be attentive to other depressive signs beside the classical ones in the diagnostic classification registries. SSD in the very old is associated with elevated direct healthcare costs, morbidity and mortality. Considering the high prevalence of SSD and the demographic development of increasing numbers of very old people, the findings highlight the need to develop clinical and societal strategies to prevent SSD and associated negative outcomes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018. p. 94
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1633
National Category
Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-149813 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-149813 (DOI)9789176852538 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-09-07, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköping, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-07-26 Created: 2018-07-26 Last updated: 2018-07-26Bibliographically approved
2. Subsyndromal depression hos äldre äldre personer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Subsyndromal depression hos äldre äldre personer
2018 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Subsyndromal Depression in Very Old Persons
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Subsyndromal depression (SSD) eller subklinisk depression är ett vanligt affektivt tillstånd som kan beskrivas som depressivitet under gränsen för vad som kallas syndromal eller egentlig depressiv episod. Förekomsten av SSD har rapporterats vara ungefär 10 % i populationen, eller ungefär 2-3 gånger högre än förekomsten av syndromal depression. SSD jämfört med icke-depression (ND) är associerat med en lägre aktivitetsförmåga (ADL, Activities of Daily Living), lägre kognitiv funktion, lägre subjektiv hälsa, sämre psykiska utfall och en högre dödlighet. Emellertid har flertalet studier om SSD hos äldre gjorts i åldersgruppen yngre äldre (60-80 års ålder), medan få studier har undersökt SSD hos äldre äldre personer (80+ års ålder). Eftersom många aspekter (t ex multisjukdom, skörhet, funktionsförmågor och socialt beroende) generellt förändras mellan yngre äldre och äldre äldre åldrar, så finns det ett behov av ökad kunskap om SSD hos äldre äldre. Syftet med denna avhandling var att beskriva SSD, eller det komplexa området mellan syndromal depression och normalt åldrande, hos äldre äldre personer.

Metod: studie 1 baserades på kvalitativa intervjuer (n=27), medan studier 2-4 till stor del baserades på data från en prospektiv observationsstudie av en kohort, ”Elderly in Linköping Screening Assessment” (ELSA85). ELSA85 hade en populationsbaserad design där man följde personer från 85 års ålder i tre uppföljande mätvågor. Depressivitet mättes med 15- frågeversionen av Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), som också användes för att definiera SSD i studierna.

Resultat: Analysen av de kvalitativa intervjuerna (studie 1) resulterade i fyra teman (livet går ned och kroppen sviktar, att klara sig själv, att hänga med, och att ta en dag i taget), vilka tillsammans gav en helhetsbild av SSD i de högsta åldrarna. I en jämförelse mellan SSD, ND och syndromal depression, så skiljde sig SSD kvalitativt från syndromal depression, men däremot inte tydligt från ND. En tvärsnittsanalys av data från baslinjen av studien (studie 2) identifierade associerade faktorer till SSD bland äldre äldre personer, och enligt analysen med multipel logistisk respektive linjär regression så var det fyra domäner (sociodemografiska faktorer, sviktande fysisk funktion, neuropsykiatriska faktorer och existentiella faktorer) som var signifikant associerade med SSD.

I en fem års longitudinell uppföljning (studie 3) visades att direkta hälso- och sjukvårdskostnader per överlevnadsmånad och person var förhöjd hos personer med SSD jämfört med ND med ett storleksförhållande 1.45 (€634 vs €436), vilket var en signifikant skillnad även när man kontrollerade för somatisk multisjukdom. I en åtta års longitudinell uppföljning visades att dödligheten var förhöjd (dödsintensitet eller Hazard ratio (HR))=1.33) för personer med SSD jämfört med ND, liksom sjuklighet avseende personlig ADL (P-ADL), instrumentell ADL (IADL), ensamhet, subjektiv hälsa, och depressivitet. Däremot var inte kognitiv snabbhet, exekutiva funktioner eller global kognitiv funktion signifikant försämrade när man hade kontrollerat för relevanta variabler.

Slutsatser: SSD hos äldre äldre personer ser olika ut hos olika personer, och personal i hälso- och sjukvården bör vara uppmärksamma på även andra depressiva tecken förutom de klassiska symtomen i diagnosregistren. SSD hos äldre äldre är associerat med förhöjda sjukvårdskostnader, förhöjd sjuklighet och dödlighet. Med tanke på den höga förekomsten av SSD och den demografiska utvecklingen med ökande antal äldre äldre personer i samhället, så indikerar fynden behovet av att utveckla kliniska och samhälleliga strategier för att förebygga SSD och associerade negativa utfall.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018. p. 93
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1633
National Category
Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-149814 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-149814 (DOI)9789176852293 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-09-07, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköping, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-07-26 Created: 2018-07-26 Last updated: 2018-07-26Bibliographically approved

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Ludvigsson, MikaelMarcusson, JanWressle, EwaMilberg, Anna

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