liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Path tracking and stabilization for a reversing general 2-trailer configuration using a cascaded control approach
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1795-5992
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6957-2603
2016 (English)In: Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2016 IEEE, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, p. 1156-1161Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper a cascaded approach for stabilizationand path tracking of a general 2-trailer vehicle configurationwith an off-axle hitching is presented. A low level LinearQuadratic controller is used for stabilization of the internalangles while a pure pursuit path tracking controller is used ona higher level to handle the path tracking. Piecewise linearityis the only requirement on the control reference which makesthe design of reference paths very general. A Graphical UserInterface is designed to make it easy for a user to design controlreferences for complex manoeuvres given some representationof the surroundings. The approach is demonstrated with challengingpath following scenarios both in simulation and on asmall scale test platform.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016. p. 1156-1161
Keywords [en]
cascade control, control system synthesis, graphical user interfaces, linear quadratic control, mobile robot, path planning, piecewise linear techniques
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130950DOI: 10.1109/IVS.2016.7535535ISI: 000390845600183ISBN: 978-1-5090-1821-5 (print)ISBN: 978-1-5090-1822-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-130950DiVA, id: diva2:957204
Conference
2016 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Gothenburg, Sweden, June 19-22, 2016
Projects
iQMatic
Funder
VINNOVAAvailable from: 2016-09-01 Created: 2016-09-01 Last updated: 2019-01-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Sampling Based Motion Planning for Heavy Duty Autonomous Vehicles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sampling Based Motion Planning for Heavy Duty Autonomous Vehicles
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The automotive industry is undergoing a revolution where the more traditional mechanical values are replaced by an ever increasing number of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) where advanced algorithms and software development are taking a bigger role. Increased safety, reduced emissions and the possibility of completely new business models are driving the development and most automotive companies have started projects that aim towards fully autonomous vehicles. For industrial applications that provide a closed environment, such as mining facilities, harbors, agriculture and airports, full implementation of the technology is already available with increased productivity, reliability and reduced wear on equipment as a result. However, it also gives the opportunity to create a safer working environment when human drivers can be removed from dangerous working conditions. Regardless of the application an important part of any mobile autonomous system is the motion planning layer. In this thesis sampling-based motion planning algorithms are used to solve several non-holonomic and kinodynamic planning problems for car-like robotic vehicles in different application areas that all present different challenges.

First we present an extension to the probabilistic sampling-based Closed-Loop Rapidly exploring Random Tree (CL-RRT) framework that significantly increases the probability of drawing a valid sample for platforms with second order differential constraints. When a tree extension is found infeasible a new acceleration profile that tries to brings the vehicle to a full stop before the collision occurs is calculated. A resimulation of the tree extension with the new acceleration profile is then performed. The framework is tested on a heavy-duty Scania G480 mining truck in a simple constructed scenario.

Furthermore, we present two different driver assistance systems for the complicated task of reversing with a truck with a dolly-steered trailer. The first is a manual system where the user can easily construct a kinematically feasible path through a graphical user interface. The second is a fully automatic planner, based on the CL-RRT algorithm where only a start and goal position need to be provided. For both approaches, the internal angles of the trailer configuration are stabilized using a Linear Quadratic (LQ) controller and path following is achieved through a pure-pursuit control law. The systems are demonstrated on a small-scale test vehicle with good results.

Finally, we look at the planning problem for an autonomous vehicle in an urban setting with dense traffic for two different time-critical maneuvers, namely, intersection merging and highway merging. In these situations, a social interplay between drivers is often necessary in order to perform a safe merge. To model this interaction a prediction engine is developed and used to predict the future evolution of the complete traffic scene given our own intended trajectory. Real-time capabilities are demonstrated through a series of simulations with varying traffic densities. It is shown, in simulation, that the proposed method is capable of safe merging in much denser traffic compared to a base-line method where a constant velocity model is used for predictions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. p. 60
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1762
National Category
Control Engineering Vehicle Engineering Robotics Computer Sciences Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132769 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-132769 (DOI)9789176856673 (ISBN)
Presentation
2016-12-02, 10:15 (Swedish)
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-23 Created: 2016-11-23 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
2. On motion planning and control for truck and trailer systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On motion planning and control for truck and trailer systems
2019 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During the last decades, improved sensor and hardware technologies as well as new methods and algorithms have made self-driving vehicles a realistic possibility in the near future. Thanks to this technology enhancement, many leading automotive and technology companies have turned their attention towards developing advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and self-driving vehicles. Autonomous vehicles are expected to have their first big impact in closed areas, such as mines, harbors and loading/offloading sites. In such areas, the legal requirements are less restrictive and the surrounding environment is more controlled and predictable compared to urban areas. Expected positive outcomes include increased productivity and safety, reduced emissions and the possibility to relieve the human from performing complex or dangerous tasks. Within these sites, different truck and trailer systems are used to transport materials. These systems are composed of several interconnected modules, and are thus large and highly unstable while reversing. This thesis addresses the problem of designing efficient motion planning and feedback control frameworks for such systems.

First, a cascade controller for a reversing truck with a dolly-steered trailer is presented. The unstable modes of the system is stabilized around circular equilibrium configurations using a gain-scheduled linear quadratic (LQ) controller together with a higher-level pure pursuit controller to enable path following of piecewise linear reference paths. The cascade controller is then used within a rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT) framework and the complete motion planning and control framework is demonstrated on a small-scale test vehicle.

Second, a path following controller for a reversing truck with a dolly-steered trailer is proposed for the case when the obtained motion plan is kinematically feasible. The control errors of the system are modeled in terms of their deviation from the nominal path and a stabilizing LQ controller with feedforward action is designed based on the linearization of the control error model. Stability of the closed-loop system is proven by combining global optimization, theory from linear differential inclusions and linear matrix inequality techniques.

Third, a systematic framework is presented for analyzing stability of the closed-loop system consisting of a controlled vehicle and a feedback controller, executing a motion plan computed by a lattice planner. When this motion planner is considered, it is shown that the closed-loop system can be modeled as a nonlinear hybrid system. Based on this, a novel method is presented for analyzing the behavior of the tracking error, how to design the feedback controller and how to potentially impose constraints on the motion planner in order to guarantee that the tracking error is bounded and decays towards zero.

Fourth, a complete motion planning and control solution for a truck with a dolly-steered trailer is presented. A lattice-based motion planner is proposed, where a novel parametrization of the vehicle’s state-space is proposed to improve online planning time. A time-symmetry result is established that enhance the numerical stability of the numerical optimal control solver used for generating the motion primitives. Moreover, a nonlinear observer for state estimation is developed which only utilizes information from sensors that are mounted on the truck, making the system independent of additional trailer sensors. The proposed framework is implemented on a full-scale truck with a dolly-steered trailer and results from a series of field experiments are presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019. p. 78
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Licentiate Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1832
National Category
Control Engineering Vehicle Engineering Robotics Embedded Systems Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-153892 (URN)10.3384/lic-diva-153892 (DOI)9789176851302 (ISBN)
Presentation
2019-01-25, Ada Lovelace, B-building, Campus Valla, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-01-17 Created: 2019-01-17 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(2025 kB)464 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 2025 kBChecksum SHA-512
17f603f467ee68b88654b9a82ac00e2e1c4fe28782e47cb3eed7dc22fb5d0c5b866a56cd2934da06f56fa3117f68ce14c97786860a0d9a2a000d0eb7cf68859e
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full text

Authority records BETA

Evestedt, NiclasLjungqvist, OskarAxehill, Daniel

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Evestedt, NiclasLjungqvist, OskarAxehill, Daniel
By organisation
Automatic ControlFaculty of Science & Engineering
Control Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 464 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 393 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf