Fire and rescue services (FRS) in Sweden have recently undergone organisational changes aiming at improving service quality and efficiency. Among those changes are an increased number of formalised cooperations between FRSs, increased collaboration with other sectors, changes in the structure of rescue teams, and an increase in the tasks performed by the services. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether these policy changes have resulted in increased cost efficiency in the Swedish FRS. We used stochastic frontier analysis of annual data from Swedish municipalities, taking into account contextual differences. No evidence of improved efficiency in the FRS could be found. The policy changes implemented have not had the desired effects, and most of the policy variables tested for inclusion in the model were not significant. The results also show great variation in efficiency between FRSs which could be used for benchmarking and basis for further analysis.