Metabolic characterization of AH-7921, a synthetic opioid designer drug: in vitro metabolic stability assessment and metabolite identification, evaluation of in silico prediction, and in vivo confirmation
2016 (English)In: Drug Testing and Analysis, ISSN 1942-7603, E-ISSN 1942-7611, Vol. 8, no 8, 779-791 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
AH-7921 (3,4-dichloro-N-[(1-dimethylamino) cyclohexylmethyl] benzamide) is a new synthetic opioid and has led to multiple nonfatal and fatal intoxications. To comprehensively study AH-7921 metabolism, we assessed human liver microsome (HLM) metabolic stability, determined AH-7921s metabolic profile after human hepatocytes incubation, confirmed our findings in a urine case specimen, and compared results to in silico predictions. For metabolic stability, 1 mu mol/L AH-7921 was incubated with HLM for up to 1 h; for metabolite profiling, 10 mu mol/L was incubated with pooled human hepatocytes for up to 3 h. Hepatocyte samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography quadrupole/time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS). High-resolution full scan MS and information-dependent acquisition MS/MS data were analyzed with MetabolitePilot (TM) (SCIEX) using multiple data processing algorithms. The presence of AH-7921 and metabolites was confirmed in the urine case specimen. In silico prediction of metabolite structures was performed with MetaSite (TM) (Molecular Discovery). AH-7921 in vitro half-life was 13.5 +/- 0.4 min. We identified 12 AH-7921 metabolites after hepatocyte incubation, predominantly generated by demethylation, less dominantly by hydroxylation, and combinations of different biotransformations. Eleven of 12 metabolites identified in hepatocytes were found in the urine case specimen. One metabolite, proposed to be di-demethylated, N-hydroxylated and glucuronidated, eluted after AH-7921 and was the most abundant metabolite in non-hydrolyzed urine. MetaSite (TM) correctly predicted the two most abundant metabolites and the majority of observed biotransformations. The two most dominant metabolites after hepatocyte incubation (also identified in the urine case specimen) were desmethyl and di-desmethyl AH-7921. Together with the glucuronidated metabolites, these are likely suitable analytical targets for documenting AH-7921 intake. Copyright (c) 2015 John Wiley amp; Sons, Ltd.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-BLACKWELL , 2016. Vol. 8, no 8, 779-791 p.
high resolution mass spectrometry; human hepatocytes; metabolism; synthetic opioids; in silico prediction
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132491DOI: 10.1002/dta.1856ISI: 000384805100003PubMedID: 26331297OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-132491DiVA: diva2:1046256
Funding Agencies|Intramural Research Program of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health2016-11-132016-11-122016-11-13