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Evidences for Microbial Precipitation of Calcite in Speleothems from Krem Syndai in Jaintia Hills, Meghalaya, India
Indira Gandhi National Open University, India; University of Bergen, Norway.
Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, India.
Indian Institute Science Educ and Research Kolkata, India.
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2016 (English)In: Geomicrobiology Journal, ISSN 0149-0451, E-ISSN 1521-0529, Vol. 33, no 10, 906-933 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Speleothems from Krem Syndai, Meghalaya in Northeast India were studied for their microbial diversity using 16S rDNA-based phylogenetic approach and conventional microbiological techniques along with geochemistry, mineralogy and in vitro experiments to understand participation of microorganisms in CaCO3 precipitation. Speleothems imaged by scanning electron microscopy showed round coccoid-like, sporangia-like and spinose calcified structures, numerous broken cocci shells with spotted interiors inside a calcite crystal, honeycomb long reticulate, smooth, flat, twisted, ribbon-like, tubular, beaded, microbe-mineralized filaments and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Fourier spectroscopy indicated the presence of various organic compounds. C-13 and O-18 isotopic ratios of speleothems ranged from -4.65 to -7.34 parts per thousand and -3.06 to -6.80 parts per thousand, respectively. Total number of microbial cells using SYBR Gold was high. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) indicated approximately 3x 10(5) to 5x 10(5) cells g sed(-1) in the speleothems out of which the number of microbes belonging to Eubacteria ranged from 1.8x 10(5) to 3.6x 10(5) cells, g sed(-1). FISH showed approximate to 45% active microbial cells of the total cell number in samples. DNA-based high-throughput amplicon sequencing revealed 19 bacterial phyla in the speleothem. Approximately 42% of the sequences were similar to Proteobacteria (Alphaproteobacteria: 22.4%, Betaproteobacteria: 8.9%, Gammaproteobacteria: 8.6%). Sequences similar to Nitrospiraceae (22.8%) had the highest proportion of sequences belonging to a single family. Bacterial strains isolated from the speleothems raised alkalinity and precipitated calcite in the laboratory cultures which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. These isolates belonged to Bacillus spp., Actinomycetes spp., Streptomyces spp., Pseudomonas spp., Micrococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Xanthobacter spp. and Arthrobacter spp. Overall, the results showed unequivocal evidence of bacterial fingerprints during CaCO3 precipitation in the cave.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC , 2016. Vol. 33, no 10, 906-933 p.
Keyword [en]
Biocalcification; cave; geomicrobiology; speleothem
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133130DOI: 10.1080/01490451.2015.1127447ISI: 000387909400008OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-133130DiVA: diva2:1055230
Note

Funding Agencies|World Bank (TEQIP-II); Academy of Finland; KYT research program; Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi; Swedish South Asian Studies Network

Available from: 2016-12-12 Created: 2016-12-09 Last updated: 2016-12-12

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