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Severe sepsis in the ICU is often missing in hospital discharge codes.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Burn Center, Department of Plastic- and Maxillofacial Surgery, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
2017 (English)In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 61, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Different International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-based code abstraction strategies have been used when studying the epidemiology of severe sepsis. The aim of this study was to compare three previously used ICD code abstraction strategies to the American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine (ACCP/SCCM) consensus criteria for severe sepsis, in a setting of intensive care patients.

METHODS: All patients (≥ 18 years of age) with severe sepsis according to the ACCP/SCCM criteria registered in the Swedish Intensive Care Registry (2005-2009) were included in the study. Using the Swedish National Patient Register, we investigated whether these patients fulfilled an ICD code compilation for severe sepsis at hospital discharge.

RESULTS: Overall, 9271 patients with severe sepsis were registered in the Swedish Intensive Care Registry. A majority of these patients (55.4%) were discharged from the hospital with ICD codes that did not correspond to any of the ICD code compilations. A minority of patients (10.3%) were discharged with ICD codes corresponding to all three code abstraction strategies applied. Overall, the proportion of patients discharged with ICD codes corresponding to the criteria of Angus et al. was 15.1%, to the criteria of Flaatten was 39.8%, and to the criteria of Martin et al. was 16.0%.

CONCLUSIONS: A majority of patients with severe sepsis according to the ACCP/SCCM criteria were not discharged with ICD codes corresponding to the ICD code abstraction strategies; thus, the abstraction strategies did not identify the correct patients.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 61, no 2
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133993DOI: 10.1111/aas.12814ISI: 000394910200007PubMedID: 27699759OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-133993DiVA, id: diva2:1066104
Note

Funding agencies: Region Ostergotland

Available from: 2017-01-17 Created: 2017-01-17 Last updated: 2018-05-03
In thesis
1. The epidemiology of severe sepsis in Sweden: Methodological aspects on the use of ICD coding in national registries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The epidemiology of severe sepsis in Sweden: Methodological aspects on the use of ICD coding in national registries
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Severe sepsis is characterized by acute organ dysfunction caused by an infection. Despite advanced treatment with antibiotics and organ support the mortality remains high. The epidemiological research on severe sepsis has expanded over the years but has led to conflicting results. In this thesis, we present evidence that some of these conflicting results may be explained by inappropriate methods used in epidemiological studies on severe sepsis. The definition of severe sepsis relies on consensus criteria including a number of clinical signs, parameters and laboratory findings. To facilitate large nation-wide studies on the incidence of severe sepsis in already existing administrative datasets, several investigators have attempted to mirror the clinical criteria by using combinations of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for infection and organ dysfunction. In paper I of this thesis, however, we found that three different ICD code abstraction strategies applied on the same dataset (the Swedish National Patient Register) generated three almost separate cohorts of patients. Furthermore, in paper II, where we followed intensive care unit (ICU)-treated patients with severe sepsis according to clinical consensus criteria to discharge, we observed that most patients did not meet any ICD code abstraction strategies for severe sepsis when reviewing their ICD codes registered at discharge from the hospital. In conclusion, the ICD code abstraction strategies previously used in the epidemiological research on sepsis seem to be inaccurate in the Swedish setting.  

Sepsis may also result in poor long-term outcomes, and contribute to an increased risk of late mortality. However, the actual causes of late mortality in sepsis remain unclear. In paper III, we investigated causes of death over 1 year after treatment of sepsis in the ICU. In this study, a matched control group consisting of ICU-treated patients without sepsis was included. The most common causes of late mortality in both the sepsis group and the control group were heart diseases and cancer. The sepsis group, however, had a significantly increased incidence of infectious-related deaths compared with the control group, even over 1 year after the initial ICU event.   

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018. p. 46
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1605
National Category
Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-144232 (URN)9789176853788 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-02-09, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköping, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-01-11 Created: 2018-01-11 Last updated: 2018-01-19Bibliographically approved

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Wilhelms, SusanneWalther, StenHuss, F.Sjöberg, Folke
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Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and OncologyFaculty of Medicine and Health SciencesDepartment of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in LinköpingDivision of Cardiovascular MedicineDepartment of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery
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