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Sol-Gel Glasses Doped with Pt-Acetylides and Gold Nanoparticles for Enhanced Optical Power Limiting
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish Defence Research Agency FOI, Electrooptical Systems.
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

High power laser pulses can be a threat to sensors, including the human eye. Traditionally this threat has been alleviated by colour filters that blocks radiation in chosen wavelength ranges. Colour filters’ main drawback is that they block radiation regardless of it being useful or damaging, information is removed for wavelengths at which the filter protect. Protecting the entire wavelength range of a sensor would block or strongly attenuate the radiation needed for the operation of the sensor.

Sol-gel glasses highly doped with Pt-Acetylide chromophores have previously shown high optical quality in combination with efficient optical power limiting through reverse saturable absorption1. These filters will transmit visible light unless the light fluence is above a certain threshold. A key design consideration of laser protection filters is linear absorption in relation to threshold level. By increasing chromophore concentration the threshold is lowered at the expense of higher linear absorption. This means that the user’s view is degraded through the filter.

Adding small amounts of gold nanoparticles to the glasses resulted in an increase in optical power limiting performance. The optimal concentration of gold nanoparticles corresponded to a mean particle distance of several micrometers. The work in this licentiate thesis is about the characterization and explanation of this effect.

The glasses investigated in this work were MTEOS Sol-Gel glasses doped with either only gold nanoparticles of varying shape and concentration, 50mM of PE2-CH2OH codoped with gold nanoparticles or 50mM of PE3-CH2OH codoped with gold nanoparticles. The glasses only doped with gold nanoparticles showed high optical power limiting performance at 532nm laser wavelength, but no optical power limiting at the fluences tested at 600nm. The PE2-CH2OH glasses codoped with gold nanoparticles showed an enhancement of optical power limiting at 600nm for the low gold nanoparticle concentration glasses. The enhancement was weakened or not present for higher concentrations. A similar enhancement above noise level for the PE3-CH2OH glasses was not found.

A population model is used to give a qualitative explanation of the findings. The improvement in optical power limiting performance for the PE2-CH2OH glasses is explained by the gold nanoparticles helping to more quickly populate the highly absorbing triplet state during the rising edge of the laser pulse by enhancing two-photon absorption. The lack of any marked enhancement for the PE3-CH2OH glasses is explained by the PE3-CH2OH chromophore already being of sufficiently high performance to quickly populate the highly absorbing triplet state during the rising edge of the laser pulse. Further work is necessary to validate this model against other chromophores and improving its quantitative predictive power.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1773
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics Signal Processing Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-135532DOI: 10.3384/lic.diva-135532ISBN: 9789176855454 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-135532DiVA, id: diva2:1082384
Presentation
2017-04-07, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-03-16 Created: 2017-03-16 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Dispersion and self-orientation of gold nanoparticles in sol-gel hybrid silica - optical transmission properties
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dispersion and self-orientation of gold nanoparticles in sol-gel hybrid silica - optical transmission properties
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 1026-1034Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Silica-based hybrid materials doped with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of different shapes were prepared with an adapted sol-gel technology (using MTEOS) and polished to high optical quality. Both spherical (23 and 45 nm in diameter) and bipyramidal (36, 50 and 78 nm in length) AuNPs were prepared and used as dopants. The AuNPs were functionalized with a novel silicone polymer for compatibilization with the sol-gel medium. The glass materials showed well defined localized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorbance from the visible to NIR. No redshifts in the spectra, due to the increase in doping concentration, were observed in the glasses, proving that no or very small SPR coupling effects occur. Spectroscopic Muller Matrix Ellipsometry showed that the shorter bipyramidal AuNPs (36 and 50 nm in length) have a clear preferred orientation in the MTEOS matrix, i.e. a tendency to be oriented with their long axis in the plane parallel to the glass surfaces. Dispersions of AuNPs have proven to be good optical power limiters that depend on particle size and geometry. The solid-state glass materials showed good optical power limiting at 532 nm for nanosecond pulses, which did not depend on the size or geometry of the AuNPs. In contrast to the observation at 532 nm, at 600 nm no optical limiting effect was observed. In these solids, as for dispersions of AuNPs, the optical limiting response is caused by scattering.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114589 (URN)10.1039/c4tc02353f (DOI)000348300300017 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Armed Forces; EOARD [FA8655-12-12106]; AFRL [FA8655-12-12106]

Available from: 2015-02-27 Created: 2015-02-26 Last updated: 2017-12-04
2. Long Distance Enhancement of Nonlinear Optical Properties Using Low Concentration of Plasmonic Nanostructures in Dye Doped Monolithic Sol-Gel Materials.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long Distance Enhancement of Nonlinear Optical Properties Using Low Concentration of Plasmonic Nanostructures in Dye Doped Monolithic Sol-Gel Materials.
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2016 (English)In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 26, no 33, p. 10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Monolithic sol-gel silica composites incorporating platinum-based chromophores and various types of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are prepared and polished to high optical quality. Their photophysical properties are investigated. The glass materials show well-defined localized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorbance from the visible to NIR. No redshifts of the AuNP plasmon absorption peaks due to the increase in nanoparticle doping concentration are observed in the glasses, proving that no or very small SPR coupling effects occur between the AuNPs. At 600 nm excitation, but not at 532 nm, the AuNPs improve the nonlinear absorption performance of glasses codoped with 50 × 10−3 m of a Pt-acetylide chromophore. The glasses doped with lower concentrations of AuNPs (2-5 μm average distance) and 50 × 10−3 m in chromophore, show a marked improvement in nonlinear absorption, with no or only small improvement for the more highly AuNP doped glasses. This study shows the importance of excitation wavelength and nanoparticle concentration for composite systems employing AuNPs to improve two-photon absorption of chromophores. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Weinheim: , 2016. p. 10
Keywords
hybrid material, nonlinear absorption, nonlinear optics, plasmon, sol-gel
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-135513 (URN)10.1002/adfm.201601646 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-03-16 Created: 2017-03-16 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
3. Efficient reverse saturable absorption of sol-gel hybrid plasmonic glasses
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient reverse saturable absorption of sol-gel hybrid plasmonic glasses
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2017 (English)In: Optical materials (Amsterdam), ISSN 0925-3467, E-ISSN 1873-1252, Vol. 69, p. 134-140Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Monolithic silica sol-gel glasses doped with platinum(II) acetylide complexes possessing respectively four or six phenylacetylene units (PE2-CH2OH and PE3-CH2OH) in combination with various concentrations of spherical and bipyramidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) known to enhance non-linear optical absorption, were prepared and polished to high optical quality. The non-linear absorption of the glasses was measured and compared to glasses doped solely with AuNPs, a platinum(II) acetylide with shorter delocalized structure, or combinations of both. At 532 nm excitation wavelength the chromophore inhibited the non-linear scattering previously found for glasses only doped with AuNPs. The measured non-linear absorption was attributed to reverse saturable absorption from the chromophore, as previously reported for PE2-CH2OH/AuNP glasses. At 600 nm strong nonlinear absorption was observed for the PE3-CH2OH/AuNPs glasses, also attributed to reverse saturable absorption. But contrary to previous findings for PE2-CH2OH/AuNPs, no distinct enhancement of the non-linear absorption for PE3-CH2OH/AuNPs was observed. A numerical population model for PE3-CH2OH was used to give a qualitative explanation of this difference. A stronger linear absorption in PE3-CH2OH would cause the highly absorbing triplet state to populate quicker during the leading edge of the laser pulse and this would in turn reduce the influence from two-photon absorption enhancement from AuNPs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-138093 (URN)10.1016/j.optmat.2017.04.024 (DOI)000404305200018 ()
Note

Funding agencies: French CNRS; ENS Lyon; UCBL; Swedish Armed Forces

Available from: 2017-06-08 Created: 2017-06-08 Last updated: 2018-03-28Bibliographically approved

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