Single-crystal Mo/V superlattices: growth, structure, and hydrogen uptake
1994 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Fundamental studies concerning the growth, structural characterization and hydrogen uptake of single-crystal (00 l )-oriented Mo/V superlattices have been performed. The superlattices were grown by dual-target magnetron sputtering in pure Ar-atmosphere < 6·10-3 Torr on (001)-oriented MgO substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray and neutron reflectivity, high resolution (HR) as well as ordinary crosssectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) were used for the structural characterization. Hydrogen depth-profiling was performed by the 15N method.
For growth of periodic Mo/V superlattices, it is shown that substrate temperatures in the range of 600-700 °C is feasible for epitaxy. At higher growth temperatures substantial interdiffusion occurred. Furthermore, simulations of XRDpatterns gave the width of the interfaces to be ±1 monolayer (±0,154 nm) which was confirmed by XRD and HRXTEM analyses of a superlattice grown with layer thicknesses DMo=Dv=0,31 nm (2 monolayers). A transition from smooth to wavy V-layers was found to occur at a critical V-layer thickness Dc. In superlattices where the relative amount of V is large, De is large and vice versa for superlattices containing thin V-layers. In superlattices with equally thick Mo- and V-layers Dc was found to be ~2,5 nm. Mo was found to grow with a uniform thickness following the surface of the V-layers. The layer thickness fluctuations are non-accumulative and disappear if the periodicity of a growing Mo/V superlattice is changed so that Dv becomes smaller than Dc. The origin of the 3D evolution is explained in terms of surface strain and the roughening transition. The interfaces of Mo/V superlattices grown under the influence of energetic ion bombardment ranging from about 15 eV to 250 eV was studied by HRXTEM and XRD. Both techniques indicated a continous deterioration of the interface quality and an increasing amount of defects with increasing ion energy.
The diffraction peaks from a clas of quasi-periodic superlattices which can be generated by the inflation rules A→AmB, B→A (m = positive integer) was analytically, experimentally and numerically found to be located at the wavevectors q = 2πɅ-1rγ(m)k where r and k are integers and A is an average superlattice period. The ratios, γ(m), between the thicknesses of the two superlattice building blocks, A and B, must be chosen such that γ(m) = (m + (m2 + 4) 1/2 )/2.
The uptake of hydrogen in the superlattices is found to decrease with decreasing A and for ≤5,5 nm the transition between α-VHx and β-VHx is not observed. A model is proposed which explains the A-dependent behaviour of the hydrogen uptake by a transfer of interstitial electrons from Mo to V, creating a 0,49 nm wide H-free interface layer. The existence of this layer is shown both by the 15N method performed on samples containing several A:s and by combining simulations of X-ray and neutron reflectivities with measurements on superlattices loaded with either hydrogen or deuterium. The structural change of Mo/V(OOl) superlattices upon H-loading was measured by a method derived in this work which utilises a combination of X-ray reflectivity and reciprocal space mapping by XRD. The lattice parameters in the layers are measured in the growth direction as well a in the plane of the sample. It is found that the V lattice expands in the growth direction and that the hydrogenation process is associated with relaxation of coherency strain.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 1994. , 61 p.
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 358
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136464ISBN: 91-7871-452-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-136464DiVA: diva2:1088138
1994-12-09, B6, Hus B, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Clemens, Bruce M, Dr.
Sundgren, Jan-Erik, Professor