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Empirical Evidence for Son-Killing X Chromosomes and the Operation of SA-Zygotic Drive
Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America / Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6112-9586
Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, USA.
Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, USA.
2011 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 8, e23508Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Diploid organisms have two copies of all genes, but only one is carried by each haploid gamete and diploid offspring. This causes a fundamental genetic conflict over transmission rate between alternative alleles. Single genes, or gene clusters, only rarely code for the complex phenotypes needed to give them a transmission advantage (drive phenotype). However, all genes on a male's X and Y chromosomes co-segregate, allowing different sex-linked genes to code for different parts of the drive phenotype. Correspondingly, the well-characterized phenomenon of male gametic drive, occurring during haploid gametogenesis, is especially common on sex chromosomes. The new theory of sexually antagonistic zygotic drive of the sex chromosomes (SA-zygotic drive) extends the logic of gametic drive into the diploid phase of the lifecycle, whenever there is competition among siblings or harmful sib-sib mating. The X and Y are predicted to gain a transmission advantage by harming offspring of the sex that does not carry them. Results: Here we analyzed a mutant X-chromosome in Drosophila simulans that produced an excess of daughters when transmitted from males. We developed a series of tests to differentiate between gametic and SA-zygotic drive, and provide multiple lines of evidence that SA-zygotic drive is responsible for the sex ratio bias. Driving sires produce about 50% more surviving daughters than sons. Conclusion: Sex-ratio distortion due to genetic conflict has evolved via gametic drive and maternally transmitted endosymbionts. Our data indicate that sex chromosomes can also drive by harming the non-carrier sex of offspring.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PlosOne , 2011. Vol. 6, no 8, e23508
National Category
Genetics Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137218DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023508ISI: 000294121300054OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-137218DiVA: diva2:1094315
Available from: 2011-09-12 Created: 2017-05-09Bibliographically approved

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