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Alterations of anti-inflammatory lipids in plasma from women with chronic widespread pain - a case control study
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
2017 (English)In: Lipids in Health and Disease, ISSN 1476-511X, E-ISSN 1476-511X, Vol. 16, article id 112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Chronic widespread pain conditions (CWP) such as the pain associated with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are significant health problems with unclear aetiology. Although CWP and FMS can alter both central and peripheral pain mechanisms, there are no validated markers for such alterations. Pro-and anti-inflammatory components of the immune system such as cytokines and endogenous lipid mediators could serve as systemic markers of alterations in chronic pain. Lipid mediators associated with anti-inflammatory qualities - e.g., oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamide ( PEA), and stearoylethanolamide ( SEA) - belong to N-acylethanolamines (NAEs). Previous studies have concluded that these lipid mediators may modulate pain and inflammation via the activation of peroxisome proliferator activating receptors (PPARs) and the activation of PPARs may regulate gene transcriptional factors that control the expression of distinct cytokines. Methods: This study investigates NAEs and cytokines in 17 women with CWP and 21 healthy controls. Plasma levels of the anti-inflammatory lipids OEA, PEA, and SEA, the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and IL-8, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were investigated. T-test of independent samples was used for group comparisons. Bivariate correlation analyses, and multivariate regression analysis were performed between lipids, cytokines, and pain intensity of the participants. Results: Significantly higher levels of OEA and PEA in plasma were found in CWP. No alterations in the levels of cytokines existed and no correlations between levels of lipids and cytokines were found. Conclusions: We conclude that altered levels of OEA and PEA might indicate the presence of systemic inflammation in CWP. In addition, we believe our findings contribute to the understanding of the biochemical mechanisms involved in chronic musculoskeletal pain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BIOMED CENTRAL LTD , 2017. Vol. 16, article id 112
Keyword [en]
Chronic widespread pain; Inflammation; N acylethanolamines; Palmitoylethanolamide; Oleoylethanolamide; Cytokines
National Category
Other Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-138888DOI: 10.1186/s12944-017-0505-7ISI: 000403043600002PubMedID: 28606089OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-138888DiVA, id: diva2:1115951
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [K2015-99x-21, 874-05-4]; Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research [2010-0913]; AFA Insurance; Region Ostergotland foundation; Ake Wiberg foundation

Available from: 2017-06-27 Created: 2017-06-27 Last updated: 2018-05-03
In thesis
1. Endocannabinoids and Related Lipids in Chronic Pain: Analytical and Clinical Aspects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Endocannabinoids and Related Lipids in Chronic Pain: Analytical and Clinical Aspects
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In Europe, approximately one in five adults experience chronic pain, pain that lasts more than three months. Chronic pain is a significant problem not only for those people suffering from chronic pain but also for society. The prevalence of chronic pain is higher in women and lower socioeconomic groups. Although chronic pain often originates in a specific site, it may eventually spread to several sites, transforming into chronic widespread pain (CWP), a condition evident in about 10% of the adult population. Approximately 1.2-5.4% are classified with fibromyalgia (FM). In addition to CWP, common symptoms of FM include, stiffness, fatigue, sleep disturbances, and cognitive dysfunction and common co-morbidities include depression and anxiety. Although FM/CWP has been reported to alter both central and peripheral nociceptive mechanisms, no objective biomarkers have been found that correlate with CWP/FM and no standard examinations such as blood test, X-ray or computed tomography can provide support for a diagnosis. Because there are no objective biomarkers that correlate with the pathophysiological processes associated with CWP/FM, this debilitating disease is difficult to diagnose and ultimately treat. However, there are some promising therapeutic targets for chronic pain with inter alia analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and stress modulating properties: the endocannabinoids (ECs) arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and their related lipids oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and stearoylethanolamide (SEA).

This thesis investigates whether ECs and the related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) can be used as potential biomarkers for CWP/FM. Specifically, the studies compared the peripheral and systemic levels of ECs and NAEs in 121 women with CWP/FM and in 137 healthy controls in two different cohorts. In addition, the correlation between lipid levels and common pain characteristics such as intensity, sensitivity, and duration were investigated. The EC and related lipid levels were measured using liquid chromatography in combination with tandem mass spectrometry. Multivariate data analysis was used for biomarker evaluation.

Compared to the healthy controls, the CWP/FM patients had significantly higher concentrations of OEA, PEA, and SEA in muscle and plasma (p ≤ 0.05) and significantly higher 2-AG in plasma (p ≤ 0.01). These results may indicate that NAEs, are mobilized differently in painful muscles compared with pain free muscles. Moreover, increased systemic levels of NAEs and 2-AG in patients might be signs of ongoing low-grade inflammation in

CWP/FM. These findings contribute to a better understanding of how peripheral and systemic factors maintain and activate chronic pain. Although the investigated lipids have statistically significant effects but biologically uncertain role in the clinical manifestations of CWP/FM. Thus plasma lipids are not a good biomarker for CWP/FM. Nevertheless, increased lipid levels indicate a metabolic asymmetry in CWP/FM, a finding that could serve as a basis for more research on pain management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018. p. 85
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1619
National Category
Rheumatology and Autoimmunity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147653 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-147653 (DOI)9789176853191 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-06-01, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköping, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-05-03 Created: 2018-05-03 Last updated: 2018-05-03Bibliographically approved

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Stensson, NiclasGhafouri, Nazdar

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