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An Analysis of Passenger Demand Forecast Evaluation Methods
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2017 (English)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

In the field of aviation forecasting is used, among other things, to determine the number of passengers to expect for each flight. This is beneficial in the practice of revenue management, as the forecast is used as a base when setting the price for each flight. In this study, a forecast evaluation has been done on seven different routes with a total of 61 different flights, using four different methods. These are: Mean Absolute Scaled Error (MASE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Tracking Signal, and a goodness of fit test to determine if the forecast errors are normally distributed. The MASE has been used to determine if the passenger forecasts are better or worse than a naïve forecast, while the MAPE provides an error value for internal comparisons between the flights. The Tracking Signal and the normal distribution test have been used in order to determine whether a flight has bias or not towards under- or overforecasting. The results point towards a general underforecast across all studied flights. A total of 89 % of the forecasts perform better than the naïve forecast, with an average MASE value of 0,78. As such, the forecast accuracy is better than that of the naïve forecast. There are however large error values among the observed flights, affecting the MAPE average. The MAPE average is 38,53 % while the median is 30,60 %. The measure can be used for internal comparisons, and one such way is to use the average value as a benchmark in order to focus on improving those forecasts with a higher than average MAPE. The authors have found that the MASE and MAPE are useful in measuring forecast accuracy and as such the recommendation of the authors is that these two error measures can be used together to evaluate forecast accuracy at frequent intervals. In addition to this there is value in examining the error distribution in conjunction with the Mean Error when searching for bias, as this will indicate if there is systematic error present.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. , p. 65
Keywords [en]
forecasting, MASE, MAPE, Tracking Signal, forecast evaluation, revenue management
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139942ISRN: LiU-ITN-TEK-G--17/114--SEOAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-139942DiVA, id: diva2:1135039
Subject / course
Logistics Management
Uppsok
Technology
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2017-08-22Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

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Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf