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Effects of Temperature and Landfill Ageing on leaching and Degradation of Phtalates from a Poly(vinyl chloride) Carpet under Simulated Landfill Conditions
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Department of Waste Management, Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg , Germany.
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
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(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

 

Phthalic ether esters are a group of chemicals used in the manufacture of PVC plastics, often as plasticizing additives, hence they may leach from the material and/or finished products before, during and after their use. This article presents results from laboratory-scale investigations of the fates of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP) under simulated landfill conditions, in custom-designed incubation units filled with model municipal solid waste. More specifically, the effects of temperature and landfill degradation phase on both the leaching and degradation potential of the two phthalates from a PVC carpet were examined, by measuring them in samples from units maintained at 20, 37, 55 and 70°C as they progressed through anaerobic acidogenic and methanogenic landfill phases. The results show that both BBP and DEHP leached from the carpet. For DEHP there was a clear temperature effect, and the highest losses were observed at 70°C, while for BBP slight increases in losses with temperature were observed from 20 to 55°C, and from 55 to 70°C, but the largest losses were seen at 37°C, probably due to biodegradation. Further degradation of the leached phthalates occured at all temperatures. Apparent degradation products observed included phthalic acid (PA) and mono (2-ethylhexyl)-, monobutyl- and monobenzyl-phthalate. In all cases the biological degradation of the phthalates occurred mainly after the systems switched to methanogenic conditions. The rate-limiting step of degradation in the 20 and 37°C units seemed to be the transformation of the monoesters, which tended to accumulate more than PA, while at 55 and 70°C PA accumulated to a higher extent.

National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15207OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-15207DiVA: diva2:113672
Available from: 2008-10-23 Created: 2008-10-23 Last updated: 2010-01-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Leaching and Transformation of Flame Retardants and Plasticizers under Simulated Landfill Conditions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leaching and Transformation of Flame Retardants and Plasticizers under Simulated Landfill Conditions
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Läckage och transformation av flamskyddsmedel och mjukgörare under simulerade deponiförhållanden
Abstract [en]

Many products used in our everyday life contain chemicals added to give them specific properties. Flame retardants (FRs) are added to prevent or retard fires in textiles, plastics etc., while plasticizers are supplied to make plastics more flexible. Through their widespread applications chemicals from both groups are emitted and spread in the environment during usage and disposal. For a long time these products were mainly disposed of in landfills, and in many areas they still are. Thus, since some of these chemicals also pose potential environmental risks and health hazards, there is a need to elucidate their fates during exposure to the landfill environmentThe objectives of this thesis were to investigate the leaching and transformation of FRs and plasticizers from products in which they are used under simulated landfill conditions. To assess the importance of changes in these processes as landfills progress through recognised ageing phases (accompanied by large transitions in both physico-chemical and biological conditions) it was desirable to simulate the changes that typically occur in landfills within a short time period, of 1-2 years.. This was achieved using the newly developed intermediate-scale (3 litre) Modular Environmental Test System (METS).The METS were employed in two studies. The first was an investigation of the leaching and degradation of plasticizers from PVC carpet material incubated at different temperatures (20, 37, 55 and 70°C) prevailing in landfills. Plasticizers subjected to this investigation were the phthalates di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP), both of which were found to leach from the carpet. The leaching of DEHP and BBP generally increased with increases in the incubation temperature. However, the most rapid leaching of BBP occurred at 37°C, probably due to high microbial activity at this temperature. Both DEHP and BBP were shown to be degraded within the landfill environment and the degradation potential was highest during the methanogenic landfill phase. In the second METS study the leaching of FRs used in both reactive and additive applications (i.e. chemically bonded to and merely blended with the material, respectively) was characterised. The epoxy oligomer tetrabromobishpenol A (TBBPA) and the phosphorus-based Pyrovatex FRs were selected as representatives for the reactive FRs, while the nitrogen-based melamine and phosphorus-based Proban FRs were selected to represent additive classes. During the incubations, which lasted more than two years, the leaching from melamine was shown to be affected by the landfill phase development. The leaching from the Pyrovatex-treated material and the TBBPA epoxy oligomer seemed to result almost entirely from the washout of unreacted manufacturing residuals. This was also probably true for the FR in the Proban-treated material, although it is durable (despite being additively applied) and thus seemed to leach more slowly (manifested as an increase in phosphate levels in the leachate towards the end of the monitoring period).Finally, due to the paucity of knowledge regarding the fate of ether derivatives of TBBPA (which are also used as FRs) an anaerobic degradation assay was performed. The method employed for this assay was a modified, small-scale ISO standard method. In order to evaluate the degradation assay a uniform analytical protocol was developed. The degradation survey showed that losses of TBBPA, TBBPA-dimethyl ether and bisphenol A dimethyl ether occurred, but no losses of the most hydrophobic compound, TBBPA-dibromopropyl ether, were observed.

Abstract [sv]

Många av de varor och produkter vi kommer i kontakt med dagligen innehåller kemikalier, som tillsats för att materialen i produkterna skall få specifika egenskaper. Till dessa sk funktionella kemiska föreningar hör till exempel flamskyddsmedel och mjukgörare. Den förra förhindrar att produkter fattar eld eller minskar omfattningen av brand. Mjukgörare ingår fr a i plaster för att dessa skall bli smidiga och formbara. Eftersom stora mängder av dessa substanser används eller har använts i produkter i samhället har de spridits till många miljöer. Produkterna hamnar ofta på soptipp, då de inte används mer eller är utnötta. Eftersom flera av dessa substanser innebär risk för hälsa och miljö, är det påkallat att utreda hur de beter sig i soptippsmiljön.Syftet med detta avhandlingsarbete är att undersöka eventuell frisättning och omvandling av dessa två typer av funktionella kemikalier i deponimiljö. Sedan tidigare vet man att sådan frisättning kan var starkt kopplad till åldern och därmed utvecklingen av den kemiska och fysiska miljön förändrats fr a genom tillväxten av mikroorganismer i soptippen. För att komma åt att studera frisättningen under de för deponier karakteristiska utvecklingsfaserna utvecklades en metod (Modualr Environmetal Test System; METS) för att simulera faserna över relativt kort tid (ca 1-2 år). I avhandlingen presenteras två studier, där METS utnyttjats: 1) Frisättning av mjukgörare från en PVC-matta i relation till temperaturer, som uppträder i soptippar (20-70oC) samt 2) Läckage av olika flamskyddsmedel i reaktiv respektive additiv användning studerades för olika applikationer. Vid reaktive applikation är flamskyddsmedlet kovalent bundet till polymeren i produktmaterialet, medan det additivt använda flamskyddsmedlet är inblandat i materialet.Två ftalater (di-2-etylhexyl ftalat, DEHP och bensyl-butyl ftalat (BBP), visade sig läcka från mattan, vilket ökade med högre temperature. De frisattes dock som mest vid 37oC, vilket sannolikt beror på den höga mikrobiella aktiviteten vid denna temperatur. Båda ftalterna bröts ned i soptippsmiljön och hastigheten var störst i den metanogena fasen.En epoxyoligomer (tetrabromobishpenol A TBBPA) och Pyrovatex, som bygger på en fosforförening, användes som modeller för reaktiva flamskyddsmedel. Melamin, som klassas som ett kvävebaserat flamskyddsmedel, fick tillsammans med Proban (fosforbaserat) represen-tera de som används additivt. Medan en frisättning av melamin kunde relateras till utvecklingen av deponimiljön simulerad i METS, så verkar den observerade frisättningen av kemikalierna från de reaktivt behandlade Pyrovatexmaterialet och från epoxipolymeren TBBPA förr ha en fysikalisk-kemisk grund oberoende av utvecklingsfaserna i tippmodel-lerna. Flamskyddsmedlen tvättades helt enkelt ut ur de behandlade produkterna. Probanbehandlingen, som motstår förhållandevis många tvättar trots att det används additivt, visade sig läcka långsamt utan en direkt koppling till fasutvecklingen i METS.Kunskaperna om vad som händer med TBBPA:s eterderivat i deponier är i stort sett obefintliga. Flera av dessa derivat används också som flamskyddsmedel. Därför genomfördes en anaerob nedbrytningsstudie av dessa substanser. För att kunna göra denna studie behövdes en omfattande anpassning och utveckling av metodik, vilket resulterade i ett nytt protokoll för analys av dessa ämnen i olika matriser. Studien visade minskning av koncentrationerna av TBBPA, TBBPA-dimetyleter och bisfenol A dimetyl eter, vilket kan tas som ett tecken på att en transformation och/eller nedbrytning skett. Då dessa föreningar kan omvandlas till mer toxiska substanser bör de undersökas vidare.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2008. 55 + papers 1-5 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 455
Keyword
DEHP, BBP, tetrabromobisphenol A, TBBPA, TBBPA-DAE, TBBPA-DBPE, TBBPA-DHEE, Proban, Pyrovatex, Melamine
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15204 (URN)978-91-7393-790-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-10-03, Val, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-10-28 Created: 2008-10-23 Last updated: 2014-09-19Bibliographically approved

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Hörsing, MarithaKarlsson, AnnaSvensson, Bo HEjlertsson, Jörgen

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