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Short- and Long-Term Influences of Education, Health Indicators, and Crime on Labor Market Outcomes: Five Essays in Empirical Labor Economics
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The objective of this thesis is to improve the understanding of how several individual characteristics, namely education (years of schooling), health indicators (height, weight, smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise), criminal behavior, and crime victimization, influence labor market outcomes in the short and long run. The first part of the thesis consists of three studies in which I adopt a within-twin-pair difference approach to analyze how education, health indicators, and earnings are associated with each other over the life cycle. The second part of the thesis includes two studies in which I use field experiments in order to test the employability of exoffenders and crime victims.

The first essay, Learning for life?, describes an analysis of the education premium in earnings and health-related behaviors throughout adulthood among twins. The results show that the education premium in earnings, net of genetic inheritance, is rather small over the life cycle but increases with the level of education. The results also show that the education premium in health-related behaviors is mainly concentrated on smoking habits. The influences of education on earnings and health-related behaviors seem to work independently of each other, and there are no signs that health-related behaviors influence the education premium in earnings or vice versa.

The second essay, Blowing up money?, details an analysis of the association between smoking and earnings in two different historical social contexts in Sweden: the 1970s and the 2000s. I also consider possible differences in this association in the short and long run as well as between the sexes. The results show that the earnings penalty for smoking is much stronger in the 2000s as compared to the 1970s (for both sexes) and that it is larger in the long run as compared to the short run (for men).

The third essay, Two by two, inch by inch, describes an analysis of the height premium among Swedish twins. The results show that the height premium is relatively constant over the life cycle and that it is larger below median height for men and above median height for young women. The estimates are similar for monozygotic and dizygotic twins, indicating that environmentally and genetically induced height differences are similarly associated with earnings over the life cycle.

The fourth essay, The employability of ex-offenders, published in IZA Journal of Labor Policy (2017), 6:6, details an analysis of whether male and female exoffenders are discriminated against when applying for jobs in the Swedish labor market. The results show that employers do discriminate against exoffenders but that the degree of discrimination varies across occupations. Discrimination against ex-offenders is pronounced in female-dominated and high-skilled occupations. The magnitude of discrimination against exoffenders does not vary by applicants’ sex.

The fifth essay, Victimized twice?, describes an analysis of whether male and female crime victims are discriminated against when applying for jobs in the Swedish labor market. This study is the first to consider potential hiring discrimination against crime victims. The results show that employers do discriminate against crime victims. The discrimination varies with the sex of the crime victim and occupational characteristics and is concentrated among high-skilled jobs for female crime victims and among femaledominated jobs for male crime victims.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköpiing: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017. , p. 17
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 722
Keywords [en]
education, health indicators, crime, labor market outcomes, family background, twins, field experiments
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-140649ISBN: 9789176854631 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-140649DiVA, id: diva2:1138745
Public defence
2017-10-06, ACAS, A-huset, Campus Valla, Linköping, Sweden, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-09-06 Created: 2017-09-06 Last updated: 2017-09-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The employability of ex-offenders: a field experiment in the Swedish labor market
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The employability of ex-offenders: a field experiment in the Swedish labor market
2017 (English)In: IZA Journal of Labor Policy, ISSN 2193-9004, E-ISSN 2193-9004, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the findings of a field experiment on hiring discrimination against ex-offenders in the Swedish labor market. Matched pairs of written job applications for fictitious male and female applicants with and without a past conviction of assault were sent to employers for nine different occupations. Results show that discrimination against ex-offenders exists, but the extent of it varies across occupations. The past conviction of assault was associated with 7–18 percentage point lower probability of receiving a positive employer response. Discrimination against ex-offenders was pronounced in female-dominated and high-skilled occupations. The magnitude of discrimination against ex-offenders did not vary by applicants’ sex.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keywords
Ex-offenders, Field experiments, Labor market discrimination
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-140652 (URN)10.1186/s40173-017-0084-2 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-09-06 Created: 2017-09-06 Last updated: 2017-09-06

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